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1791 September

5th At a town meeting in Pittsfield, MA, a bylaw is passed making it illegal to play baseball and other sports within eighty yards of the town hall to prevent the breaking of windows. The bylaws were discovered in 2004 by baseball historian John Thorn and it is the first mention of “baseball” in the U.S. The Byelaw (sic) reads as follows: Be it ordained by the said Inhabitants that no person or Inhabitant of said Town, shall be permitted to play at any game called Wicket, Cricket, Baseball, Batball, Football, Cats, Fives or any other games played with Ball, within the Distance of eighty yards from said Meeting House – And every such Person who shall play at any of the said games or other games with Ball within the distance aforesaid, shall for every Instance thereof, forfeit the Sum of five shillings to be recovered by Action of Debt brought before any Justice of the Peace to the Person who shall and prosecute therefore And be it further ordained that in every Instance where any Minor shall be guilty of a Breach of this Law, his Parent, Master, Mistress or guardian shall forfeit the like Sum to be recovered in manner, and to the use aforesaid.

1806

“Conversations on Chymistry, in which the elements of that science are familiarly explained and illustrated by experiments and plates,” by Jane Haldiman Marcet, is published anonymously in London. The first American edition is published in New Haven in 1809 with different additions. An 1836 American edition, edited by Rev. J.L. Blake, who said he did not change the book, relates on pp. 15-16, chap. 1 “On General Properties of Bodies,” a conversation between Emily and Mrs. B., on the subject of inertia:

Emily: In playing base-ball I am obliged to use all my strengths to give a rapid motion to the ball; and when I have to catch it, I am sure I feel the resistance it makes to being stopped. But if I do not catch it, it would soon fall to the ground and stop itself.

Mrs B: Inert matter is as incapable of stopping of itself, as it is of putting itself in motion: when the ball cease to move, therefore, it must be stopped by some other cause or power; but as it is one with which you are yet unacquainted, we cannot at present investigate its effects.

(This discovery was made by Ken Mendelson, a retired physics professor at Marquette University.)

The earliest reference to baseball in the OED is Jane Austin’s “Northanger Abbey,” 1815.

1816 June

6th  Trustees of the Village of Cooperstown, NY enact an ordinance: “That no person shall play at Ball in Second or West Street (now Pioneer and Main Streets), under a penalty of one dollar, for each and every offense.” (as noted by historians Tom Heitz and John Thorn).

1823 April

5th As noted by historian George Thompson, a mention of the word “base ball” appears in the National Advocate relating a game played today. “I was much pleased in witnessing a company of active young men playing the manly and athletic game of ‘base ball’ at the Retreat in Broadway (Jones). I am informed they are an organized association, and that a very interesting game will be played on Saturday next at the above place.”

1825 June

13th  The following notice appears in the July 13, 1825 Hamden, NY edition of the Delhi Gazette: “The undersigned, all residents of the new town of Hamden, with the exception of Asa Howland, who has recently removed to Delhi, challenge an equal number of persons of any town in the County of Delaware, to meet them at any time at the house of Edward B. Chace, in said town, to play the game of Bass-Ball, for the sum of one dollar each per game.” (as noted by Tom Heitz and John Thorn).

1839 May

MAY

8th The New York City By-laws and Ordinances prohibit New York, NY ball playing.

1839 June

4th Near Beachville, Ontario, residents watch the first recorded game of baseball in Canada (as noted by John Thorn and Tom Heitz). The Canadian version uses five bases, three strikes and three outs to a side. An oblique, irregular foul line delineates buildings at the playing site creating an out-of-bounds area.

1845 September

23rd  The Knickerbocker baseball club of New York is organized at the suggestion of Alexander J. Cartwright, who formulates rules to distinguish his brand of baseball from other forms played throughout the country.

1845 October

6th  The first recorded baseball game using Cartwright’s rules is played between members of the Knickerbocker Club. Only 14 players participate as Duncan Curry’s team defeats Alex Cartwright’s team 11–8 in a shortened game of only 3 innings. The Knickerbocker Club will play at least 14 recorded games during the fall of 1845.

21st  The New YorkHeraldhas an announcement of an upcoming baseball match this afternoon between the New York Club and the Brooklyn Club at the Elysian Fields, Hoboken, NJ. This game is played under different rules than Cartwright’s.

22nd  The New YorkMorning Newsreports that in yesterday’s “friendly match of the time honored game of Baseball” the New York Club beat Brooklyn 24–4. A box score of the game is included in the account.

23rd  In a rematch at Elysian Fields, the New York club again beats Brooklyn, this time 39–17. The New York Heraldpublishes a box score of the game showing 12 outs for each side during the game, 8 players on each, and 3 umpires. Neither of these clubs leave any records behind but it is likely that this game is not considered a “New York game.”

1846 June

 

19th  The first officially recorded baseball match, played under Cartwright’s rules, takes place on the Elysian Fields with the New York Club defeating the Knickerbockers 23–1. Alex Cartwright serves as ump and hands out a fine of six cents to Wall Street broker James Whyte Davis for swearing after a disputed call. Knick player Birney makes the lone run. Four of the NY club players played in last year’s October series: Davis, Winslow, Murphy, and Case. Duncan Curry describes the action. “An awful beating, you say, at our own game, but, you see the majority of the New York Club’s players were cricketeers, and clever ones at that game, and their batting was the feature of their work.” He went on, “The pitcher of the New York nine was a cricket bowler of some note, and while one could use only a straight arm delivery he could pitch an awfully speedy ball. The game was in a crude state. No balls were called on the pitcher, which was a great advantage to him, and when he did get them over the plate they came in so fast our batsmen could not see them.”

1849 April

24th  The first baseball uniform is adopted at a meeting of the New York Knickerbocker Club. It consists of blue woolen pantaloons, a white flannel shirt, and a straw hat.

1880 January

11th  The touring Hop Bitters club, representing Rochester, NY, wins 2 games in New Orleans against local clubs. They beat the Washingtons, 26-0, in the morning, and R. E. Bees in the afternoon, 15–4.

1880 February

5th  Worcester is voted into the NL.

12th  The Boston club cuts the price of season tickets from $14 to $12 after the Red Stockings failed to win their 3rd straight pennant last season.

20th  An article in the Washington Poststates that the National Association amended their rules, allowing for the use of either a round or new four-sided bat. But the Brooklyn Eaglewill note on April 14, 1880, that “(t)he Chicago papers claim that the four-sided bat is a failure. . . . ” It subsequently quotes a Buffalo paper: “The Chicagos have tested the flat bat and pronounced it worthless,” noting that “Gore, Dalrymple and Flint say, ‘It is an impossibility to keep the ball off the ground or to prevent it going up in the air with the new bat.'”

25th  Yale chooses not to join the American Collegiate Baseball Association because of professional players on other teams. J. Lee Richmond of Brown played professionally for Worcester.

1880 March

19th  Boston signs P Jim Whitney, considered one of the best hurlers in California, at a salary of $150 per month The California Base Ball League opens the season. This league and the Pacific Base Ball League, both based in the San Francisco area, can offer enough to lure some big-name Eastern pro players.

29th  Bobby Mathews signs with the Athletics of San Francisco. The West Coast clubs will also sign Cal McVey and Jim Galvin, among others.

31st  Worcester offers Providence $1,000 for the right to negotiate with George Wright. Wright is among the 5 players reserved by the Grays under the new agreement, and that club has offered him a reduced salary, even though he led Providence to the pennant last season. Under the new reserve rule, Providence would keep Wright out of action all season.

1880 April

4th“A very singular contest took place at New Orleans, La., on April 4, 1880, when five Northern professionals succeeded in defeating the colored professional nine of that city by a score of 17 to 3.” According to the account, reported 14 months later in the Chicago Tribuneof July, 1881, Tim Keefe pitched, Charlie Bennett caught, John Sullivan played first base, and George Wood and George Creamer “were intrusted with the onerous task of filling the other six positions.” Keefe played for Albany and Troy in 1880, while the other players were teammates at Worcester.

14th  The new Cincinnati ballpark on Bank Street is opened with an exhibition game between the Reds and the Washington Nationals. The park seats 3,490 and will serve professional teams in three leagues: NL in 1880, AA in 1882–83, and UA in 1884.

21st  George Wright turns down Providence’s final contract offer. Since the club has turned down Worcester’s offer and will not allow any other club to negotiate with Wright, he will sit out the entire season (except for one game), the first player victimized by the reserve system.

28th  Boston C Lew Brown shows up drunk at an exhibition game and is suspended for the season.

1880 May

1st  Opening Day in the NL. In Cincinnati, the Chicagos spoil the official opening of the new park by beating the Reds 4–3 with 2 runs in the bottom of the 9th.Two runs come on a homer by Mike Kelly and two on an error by SS Sam Wright. This is the first pro game ended in “sudden death,” as the old rules required that the full inning be played out even if the team batting last was already ahead.

2ndThe Cleveland club gives up its appeal and pays its $50 license fee to the city, while still complaining about being treated “like a circus,” i.e. the transient business.

4th  Boston wins its home opener against Providence, 4–3, thanks largely to a 3-run homer by Curry Foley.

5th  Back at home, Providence turns the tables and beats Boston, 1–0, on a run that comes around from 1B when a throw by P Tommy bond hits the batter running to first base.

7th  George Gore of Chicago goes 6-for-6—all singles—with 5 runs scored as the White Stockings trounce Cincinnati 20–7. Gore will lead the NL in batting with a .360 average.

10th  Jim “Pud” Galvin wires the Buffalo club from San Francisco, accepting terms to play for the Bisons despite his contract to play in the California League.

13th In a 1-0 loss to Cincinnati,  Cleveland’s Al Hall suffers a season-ending broken leg in an OF collision with teammate Pete Hotaling. A 7thinning double is Cleveland’s only hit off Reds P Will White, who benefits from a 9thinning triple and score by batterymate John Clapp. A benefit will be played on May 17ththat will net Al Hall about $400, but this will not offset his loss of salary.

17th  Worcester jumps on Boston’s Bond for 11 runs in the first innings and hangs on to win, 19-10. Jack Burdock is 5-for-5 for the Reds.

18th  Corcoran returns to the pitcher’s box for Chicago as the Whites rally to beat Cleveland, 10–6. The Cleveland second baseman Fred Dunlap is 5-for-5but becomes rattled by Chicago’s baserunning at a critical time and misses 2 double plays.

20th  Chicago captain Cap Anson begins using hurlers Larry Corcoran and Fred Goldsmith in alternating games, thereby establishing the first “pitching rotation” ever.

21st  In Albany’s Riverside Park, Lip Pike hits a ball over the wall and into the river. RF Lon Knight begins to go after the ball in a boat but gives up. Few parks have ground rules about giving the batter an automatic HR on a hit over the fence.

22nd  Jim Galvin makes his first appearance of the season for Buffalo, beating Cincinnati 2–1. Galvin had difficulty leaving California, where he was forced to walk 36 miles at one point to avoid local detectives who were trying to hold him to his California League contract.

24th  Troy City rookie Roger Connor hits his first ML home run, off Boston’s Tommy bond. He adds a triple and two singles as the Trojans beat the Red Caps, 8–1. When Connor retires in 1897 he will have 136 homers, a record that will stand until Ruth breaks it in 1921.

The last place Reds trim Buffalo, 17-4. Buffalo center fielder Bill Crowley has 4 assists in the game to set the ML record. He’ll do it again August 27 against Boston.

25th  At a special meeting in Niagara Falls, Providence tries unsuccessfully to get Troy expelled from the league for failing to stay over in Providence for a makeup game on May 17. The league awards a forfeit of the game to Providence.

26th   Sam Crane, disabled by a hand injury, is released as a player and captain of the Buffalo Bisons but remains in charge of the team under the new title of manager.

27th  Fred Goldsmith and Chicago shut out Buffalo on 2 hits. The 11–0 win extends the Whites’ streak to 13 games, a new NL record.

29th  With George Wright in its lineup, Boston upsets Chicago 11–10. Wright scores 2 runs and fields flawlessly, but will play no more games because of protests from Providence, which still has him “reserved.” The loss snaps Chicago’s win streak of 13, which they will top in a little more than a month (June 2–July 8).

31st  Providence captain Mike McGeary, who has played poorly, is given a “30-day vacation” by the club. The team has a disappointing 8-7 record as 20-year-old Monte Ward takes over as captain.

1880 June

1st  Boston beats Chicago for the 2ndtime in a row, winning 5–4. Burdock also shocks the crowd with a 2-run homer, his first homer in professional play since June 18, 1874.

2nd  Buffalo fines 1B Oscar Walker $50 for breaking his temperance pledge.

3rd  Lee Richmond of Worcester shuts out Cincinnati to make it 2 shutouts in a row, 13–0 and 4–0.

4th  Larry Corcoran of Chicago and John Ward of Providence battle to a 1–1 tie in 16 innings, called because of darkness. Sixteen innings would remain the longest game in big-league history until August 17, 1882, when Ward will win 1–0 over Detroit in 18 innings.

10th  Boston’s Charley Jones, last year’s HR king with 9, hits 2 homers in one inning, becoming the first big leaguer to accomplish this feat. Both HRs come off Buffalo’s Tom Poorman in the 8th inning of a 19–3 rout. Jones now has league-high 4 homers, one more than Fred Dunlap.

11th  Yale beats Worcester, 3–2, to raise the college team’s record against pros to 9-1 for the season. The Elis will lose 2 to Chicago and finish 10–3 versus pro clubs, including 2–2 vs. the NL.

12th  John Lee Richmond pitches the first perfect game in professional history, leading Worcester to a 1–0 victory over Cleveland. RF Lon Knight saves the no-hitter by throwing out Bill Phillips at 1B for a 9–3 putout.

14th  After 2 catchers are injured—Bill Holbert with a cut from a broken mask and Bill Harbidge with a split finger—Troy is forced to recruit amateur Mike Lawlor to finish the game. Not surprisingly, Chicago wins easily 16–2.

16th  After having played in an a.m. game and then attended his graduation ceremonies at Brown, Lee Richmond is whisked into a special train so that he can pitch in the afternoon game in Worcester. He loses a tight game to Chicago, 7–6, in 10 innings.

17th  John Montgomery Ward pitches a perfect game in Providence against Buffalo, winning 5–0. Losing P Pud Galvin makes the last out. This is the 2nd perfect game in the NL in 6 days. The 3rd will not be pitched until 1964, when Jim Bunning turns the trick.

19th  Cleveland’s Jack Glasscock goes 5-for-5 with 2 doubles to lead a 27-hit attack against Troy in an 18–6 rout.

23rdBoston edges Buffalo, 7–6, in 10 innings, scoring in the top of the inning when the Bisons turn a double play while allowing the run on 3B to cross the plate.

26th  Abner Dalrymple, George Gore, and Larry Corcoran, all normally lefthanded batters, cross over and bat right-handed against southpaw Lee Richmond and get one hit each as Chicago beats Worcester 4–0. The victory runs the Whites’ latest winning streak to 14 games, breaking the “old” record that they set last month.

29th  Cleveland beats Boston 6–5 with Sid Gardner pitching his first league game for the season. Jim McCormick had pitched complete games in all of Cleveland’s 31 previous NL games.

First-place Chicago beats Worcester, 9-5. Fred Goldsmith scores a run circling the bases on a dropped third strike as he takes advantage of catcher Doc Bushong, who is playing injured.

1880 July

2nd Cap Anson paces his Chicagos to a 10–5 victory over Boston with a 5-for-5 day at the plate. He scores 4 times and drives home 2.

3rdAndy Leonard of Cincinnati makes 2 two-run errors to lose a game to Providence, 6–4. This will lead to Andy’s release, ending a career that dates back to the original Red Stockings of 1869.

4th  Three of the four holiday games are decided in extra innings. Buffalo beats Worcester, 1-0, in 10 innings after Richmond gets thrown out at home place twice in earlier innings. Cleveland scores 2 in the bottom of the 14thto edge Troy, 5–4. Chicago nips Providence in 11 innings, 3–2, before a crowd of nearly 9,000, the largest for any NL game this season.

6th  Troy’s Mickey Welch pitches a one-hitter to beat Cleveland, 8–1. The Trojans knock McCormick out of the box for his first incomplete game of the season.

8th  Chicago wins its 21st consecutive decision, beating Providence 5–4. This streak will be surpassed only once in ML history, by the New York Giants in 1916, and will be tied by the Cubs in 1935. Chicago had set the NL record of 13 straight wins earlier this year. The victory raises Chicago’s won-lost record to 35-3, far ahead of 2nd-place Providence’s 21-16 mark.

10th  Cleveland snaps Chicago’s long winning streak with a thrilling victory. The game is scoreless until the bottom of the 9th inning. Then Jack Glasscock walks, and Fred Dunlap hits a long drive to the deepest part of the park and circles the bases for an apparent HR. A lively debate ensues as to whether Dunlap gets a HR or whether the game ends the instant Glasscock touches the plate under the new sudden death rule.

11th  The Chicago Tribunepublishes statistics for the White Stocking players, including runs batted in. RBI would be dropped after the end of the season.

12th  A home run by Dan Brouthers off Jim Galvin gives Rochester a 4–3 victory over Buffalo in an exhibition game.

13th  Corcoran pitches Chicago to a 3–0 victory over Cleveland. With Goldsmith on the sick list, the White Stockings’ pitching rotation is temporarily ended.

14th  Jim O’Rourke of Boston hits 2 homers, one off Red Corey and the other off Lee Richmond, but Boston still loses, 6–5, to Worcester. O’Rourke hit a homer yesterday in a losing effort.

16th  Jim Galvin wins over Monte Ward in the season’s longest pitching duel, 1–0, in 14 innings.

17th  Rookie Harry Stovey hits his first ML HR, connecting off Jim McCormick as Worcester beats Cleveland, 7–1. Stovey will lead the league in triples and homers (tied) and will repeat the feat in 1891, the only player to ever do so. Only seven other players will do it once. Stovey will be the first ML player to reach 100 career HRs.

19th  Roger Connor strokes 2 homers and 2 singles off Corcoran as Troy beats Chicago for the first time this season, 12–9.

21stWard and Providence gain revenge against Galvin and Buffalo by winning, 6–3 in 15 innings.

23rd Monte Ward pitches a 5–0 one-hitter against Cincinnati. A leadoff single in the first inning by Blondie Purcell keeps Ward from getting his 2nd no-hitter of the season.

24thArt Irwin’s single, 2 doubles and triple enable Worcester to beat Chicago for the first time this season, winning today, 4–3.

25thHaving guided the team to an 18–13 record in 8 weeks, Johnny Ward resigns from Providence. Mike Dorgan takes the reins.

26thChicago is beaten by the Nationals of Washington, 2–1, in 12 innings in an exhibition game in Springfield, MA. The Nationals have relocated to Springfield temporarily because of the lack of good opposition coming through the nation’s capital.

27thJim “Deacon” White finally joins the Cincinnati Reds. He had signed a contract in mid-May but had delayed his departure from home to care for his sick wife.

29thRochester Hop Bitters manager Horace Phillips disappears with $400 of the club’s money. He would later claim that he borrowed the money from owner A.S. Soule.

30thCaptain Bob Ferguson’s 5thhit of the day starts a 2-run rally in the bottom of the 9thto give Troy a 7–6 victory over Buffalo.

31stChicago beats Providence, 4–1, to snap the Whites’ only 3-game losing streak of the year. They would only have two other losing streaks of 2 games each.

1880 August

1stRochester owner Soule offers a $100 reward for information concerning the whereabouts of manager Horace Phillips.

2ndGeorge Derby and the Nationals shut out Buffalo, 7–0. The Nationals have a decisive lead in the three-team National Association race at this point.

5th  Providence nips Cleveland, 2–1 on 2 late runs and a Jack Farrell to Joe Start triple play.

6th  Tim Keefe, recently with the Albany (NA) club, makes his ML debut with Troy, fanning 7 and beating Cincinnati, 4–2 on a 4-hitter. He is 2-for-4 at the plate.

7th  George Bradley hurls his 2ndshutout in 2 days for Providence over Cleveland. This completes a 3-game sweep that puts the Grays ahead of Cleveland to stay in the race for 2ndplace.

10th  Larry Corcoran’s one-hitter beats the Grays, 5–1, Bradley doubling over the RF wall in the 8thfor the only Providence hit. Chicago’s Lake Front Park, Buffalo’s Riverside Park, and Cleveland’s Kennard Street Park all have ground rules call for only two bases on hits over certain portions of the outfield fences.

12th  After 21 consecutive victories at home, Chicago suffers its first defeat at Lake Front this season, losing to Providence 6–4. The White Stockings had not lost an NL game at home since August 25, 1879.

13th  Switching OF and pitching positions 5 times, Fred Corey and Lee Richmond combine to hurl Worcester to a 3–1 victory over Cleveland.

16th  Worcester becomes the only team all season to win 2 NL games in one day, beating Cleveland 3–1 in the morning and 8–2 in the afternoon.

19th  Pitching his 3rd game in 3 days, Larry Corcoran hurls a no-hitter versus Boston, winning 6–0 over Tommy Bond. He walks none, but 4 men reach on errors. Although the ball is described as “mushy and shapeless,” that doesn’t stop the White Stockings from making 11 hits, including 4 by George Gore.

20th  Jim Galvin pitches a no-hitter against Worcester and Buffalo wins 1–0 on a first inning run. Frank Cory takes the loss.

21st  George Gore goes 4-for-4 for the 2ndgame in a row to cap an 11-for-18 series versus Boston. Chicago wins, 11–2, to complete a 4-game sweep.

24thThe Boston game in Buffalo is stopped after 7 innings because the setting sun is right in the catchers’ eyes. With the Reds leading 11–2 the outcome of the game seems assured.

27thBoston beats Buffalo, 5-3. For the second time this season, Buffalo center fielder Bill Crowley throws out 4 runners in a game to set the ML mark. It will be tied a number of times. Crowley also recorded 4 assists on May 24th, the only outfielder to accomplish this twice. When catcher Sam Trott injures his knee in the 1stinning, Boston changes both pitcher and catcher, with Tommy Bond and Phil Powers coming in. The new battery limits Buffalo to one run.

28th  Cincinnati commits 9 errors in the 4th inning and 16 in the game as the Reds are trounced by Troy 13–2. 2B Charlie Smith makes 4 errors on his way to an NL record 89 errors by a 2B in one season.

31st  Left fielder Abner Dalrymple leads Chicago to a 2–1 victory over Troy by scoring both runs and throwing out two baserunners.

1880 September

1stRochester owner Soule offers a $100 reward for information concerning the whereabouts of manager Horace Phillips.

2ndGeorge Derby and the Nationals shut out Buffalo, 7–0. The Nationals have a decisive lead in the three-team National Association race at this point.

5th  Providence nips Cleveland, 2–1 on 2 late runs and a Jack Farrell to Joe Start triple play.

6th  Tim Keefe, recently with the Albany (NA) club, makes his ML debut with Troy, fanning 7 and beating Cincinnati, 4–2 on a 4-hitter. He is 2-for-4 at the plate.

7th  George Bradley hurls his 2ndshutout in 2 days for Providence over Cleveland. This completes a 3-game sweep that puts the Grays ahead of Cleveland to stay in the race for 2ndplace.

10th  Larry Corcoran’s one-hitter beats the Grays, 5–1, Bradley doubling over the RF wall in the 8thfor the only Providence hit. Chicago’s Lake Front Park, Buffalo’s Riverside Park, and Cleveland’s Kennard Street Park all have ground rules call for only two bases on hits over certain portions of the outfield fences.

12th  After 21 consecutive victories at home, Chicago suffers its first defeat at Lake Front this season, losing to Providence 6–4. The White Stockings had not lost an NL game at home since August 25, 1879.

13th  Switching OF and pitching positions 5 times, Fred Corey and Lee Richmond combine to hurl Worcester to a 3–1 victory over Cleveland.

16th  Worcester becomes the only team all season to win 2 NL games in one day, beating Cleveland 3–1 in the morning and 8–2 in the afternoon.

19th  Pitching his 3rd game in 3 days, Larry Corcoran hurls a no-hitter versus Boston, winning 6–0 over Tommy Bond. He walks none, but 4 men reach on errors. Although the ball is described as “mushy and shapeless,” that doesn’t stop the White Stockings from making 11 hits, including 4 by George Gore.

20th  Jim Galvin pitches a no-hitter against Worcester and Buffalo wins 1–0 on a first inning run. Frank Cory takes the loss.

21st  George Gore goes 4-for-4 for the 2ndgame in a row to cap an 11-for-18 series versus Boston. Chicago wins, 11–2, to complete a 4-game sweep.

24thThe Boston game in Buffalo is stopped after 7 innings because the setting sun is right in the catchers’ eyes. With the Reds leading 11–2 the outcome of the game seems assured.

27thBoston beats Buffalo, 5-3. For the second time this season, Buffalo center fielder Bill Crowley throws out 4 runners in a game to set the ML mark. It will be tied a number of times. Crowley also recorded 4 assists on May 24th, the only outfielder to accomplish this twice. When catcher Sam Trott injures his knee in the 1stinning, Boston changes both pitcher and catcher, with Tommy Bond and Phil Powers coming in. The new battery limits Buffalo to one run.

28th  Cincinnati commits 9 errors in the 4th inning and 16 in the game as the Reds are trounced by Troy 13–2. 2B Charlie Smith makes 4 errors on his way to an NL record 89 errors by a 2B in one season.

31st  Left fielder Abner Dalrymple leads Chicago to a 2–1 victory over Troy by scoring both runs and throwing out two baserunners.

1880 October

4th  At a special NL meeting in Rochester, the league prohibits its members from renting their grounds for use on Sundays and from selling alcoholic beverages on the premises. These rules are aimed at the Cincinnati club, which has sold beer and rented out the park to amateur teams for Sundays.

5th  The NL makes a statement putting its aggregate losses for the season at $20,000. Blame is placed on high salaries, which run over $14,000 for some clubs.

6th  The Cincinnati club refuses to accede to the October 4th restrictions and is thrown out of the NL. The NL also votes to retain the year-old reserve system.

7th  The Metropolitans beat Worcester, 12–6, the Mets first victory over an NL team. The Mets will finish 5–10 versus NL opponents, but 12–1 against all other clubs.

10th  The Boston and Providence clubs release their players, thereby saving themselves 20 days’ worth of salary.

16th  The Mets beat Troy, 9–3, to split a six game “State Championship” series. John M. Ward pitches for the Mets, but he denies that he will play in New York next year, since he has a year left on his 2-year contract with Providence.

23rdThe Mets and the Chicagos close their season with a 3–2 White Stocking win in New York.

1880 November

4th  A Meeting is held in New York to discuss the possibilities for establishing a new league to rival the NL. Nothing concrete comes of the discussions.

11th  Boston signs P Jim Whitney, considered one of the best hurlers in California, at a salary of $150 per month.

1880 December

8th  At the annual NL meeting, the league rejects the Nationals’ bid for admission, electing Detroit instead, although there is no established club there. The Michigan city is chosen for geographic reasons, since its 1880 population (116,340) is smaller than both Washington’s (147,293) and Cincinnati’s (255,139), the city being replaced.

9th  The NL reelects William Hulbert as president, and adopts several new rules, including:

  • Moving the pitcher’s box back 5 feet so that its front line is 50 feet from the back point of home plate.
  • Again reducing the number of called balls for a walk, from 8 to 7.
  • Eliminating substitutions (except in the case of illness or injury), the old rule having allowed subs in the first inning but not thereafter.
  • Prohibiting all pinch runners (this rule will be ignored many times).
  • Reinstituting the old rule that allowed the fielding team to put out a runner on a foul ball if they can return the ball to the pitcher in his box, and then to the runner’s original base before the runner can get back.
  • Adopting the first rule requiring that the batting order be announced before the start of the game. This first rule was a scorecard printer’s delight, since it called for the captain to announce the lineup the night before the game.

30th  The Providence club meets and announces its squad for 1881. The newcomers include Bobby Mathews, Jerry Denny, and Bill McClellan.

1881 January

11th  The first of a series of Tuesday games on ice is played in Chicago using professional and amateur players. These games would be a regular winter feature.

23rdJerry Denny is feted at a benefit in his hometown of San Francisco just before he leaves for the east to launch a pro career that will last into the 20th century.

1881 February

7thProvidence rounds out its roster by signing Charles Radbourn, who missed most of last season with a bad arm.

11th  Veteran Charles “Chick” Fulmer is signed to manage a Philadelphia Athletic team being organized by Charley Mason and Billy Sharsig.

22nd  George Wright signs a contract with Boston that he claims will only require him to play games in New England and Troy. He feels his business commitments will not allow him to accompany the Reds on their western road trips.

25thJim O’Rourke signs with Buffalo. He boasts that the contract is for $2,000, but the Buffalo Courier puts the figure at $1,300.

1881 March

8th  The NL meets and adopts an 84-game schedule. An enterprising newsman gets the various magnates to predict the winner in the coming pennant race; Chicago is the consensus choice with 5 votes.

The owners vote to stop giving refunds or rain checks for postponed games.

9thThe NL announces a staff of 23 approved umpires, but one, John Young of Syracuse, refuses to serve.

1881 April

2nd  The new Detroit club begins practice games by beating Princeton University, 7–2. Manager Frank Bancroft has lined up a full schedule of pre-season games, considered something of an innovation.

11th  The Eastern Association is organized to link independent clubs in a loose pennant race. The clubs include the Nationals, the Mets, Atlantics, Athletics, New Yorks, Quicksteps (of NY), and New Bostons.

22nd  Horace Phillips loses his litigation against Hop Bitter owner A. S. Soule stemming from last year’s disappearance with club funds and is ordered to repay $1,463.

27thDetroit P Bill Sweeney suffers a hemorrhage of the lungs and is out for the season.

28th  With P George Bradley already sidelined by pneumonia, Detroit is desperate for a change pitcher and signs Will White to a 30-day contract, hoping Bradley will be healthy in a month.

30th  The NL season opens with games in Worcester and Chicago. The most significant new rules are the increase in pitching distance, the reduction of balls for a walk to 7, and the elimination of the “fair ball” warning on 2 strikes.

1881 May

3rdA day after losing their home opener, Detroit scores its first victory by beating the Bisons, 4–2. Joe Gerhardt stars at 2B, scoring 2 runs and handling 14 chances. He also participates in 4 DPs.

4th  Boston new P Jim Whitney shuts out Providence 4–0. The hardworking righthander will wind up leading the NL in both wins and losses (with a 31-33 record), a feat not repeated in the ML until Phil Niekro does it in 1979.

5th  Charley Radbourn makes his NL pitching debut leading Providence to a 4–2 victory over Boston.

6thTwo errors by SS Dan Stearns, a local just picked up by the Wolverines, helps Buffalo to a 3–2 win. Winning pitcher Jim Galvin is of the opinion that the 5 feet added to the pitching distance is a great help to his curve ball.

7thDespite being outhit 2 to 7, Chicago beats Cleveland, 4-0.

10thCap Anson is 4-for-4 against Tim Keefe as Chicago beats Troy, 10–5. Unlike Galvin, Keefe says the new distance has hurt his out-curve, although his in-curve is still good.

14th  Having won a judgment for his back salary in an Ohio court, Charley Jones has the local sheriff attach Boston’s share of the gate receipts in Cleveland.

17thMike McGeary captains Cleveland for the last time, as internal dissension leads to his resignation and replacement by John Clapp.

18th  When Detroit base runner Sadie Houck collides with Bob Ferguson of Troy at 2B, Ferguson becomes indignant and slaps Houck in the face. The Detroit club prefers charges against Ferguson with the league office, but nothing will be done. Troy wins, 7-2. Houck was involved in an infield collision two years ago.

At Lakefront Park, Chicago breaks open a close game with visiting Worcester, with a little bit of help from the club owner’s dog (as noted by Ed Hartig & Jim McArdle). With a man on and leading 4-1 in the 7th, Chicago SS Tom Burns lines a Lee Richmond fast ball into left field, Outfielder Buttercup Dickerson chases after the ball as it rolls along the outfield wall stopping just a few feet from the dog, sleeping outside the clubhouse. A wary Buttercup shies away from picking up the ball and by the time he does, Burns has circled the bases. Worcester manager Mike Dorgan appeals for an interference call but umpire Foghorn Bradley retorts that the dog didn’t do anything and the home run stands. Chicago scores 6 in the inning to win, 10-3, over first-place Worcester.

19th  With the Troy franchise experiencing financial difficulties, various rumors have the club moving to New York, Cincinnati, or Pittsburgh.

20th  Chicago resorts to trickery to beat Boston 5–4. Mike Kelly scores the go-ahead run from 2B on a groundout by cutting 3B by some 30 feet. The Sox 3B later saves the game with a hidden ball trick in the 9th inning.

21stJohn Ward, apparently suffering from a sore arm, is pounded by the upstart Detroit Wolverines for 16 runs, while George Derby holds Providence to 3 hits for a one-sided victory.

25thWith Jim White going 5-for-5, Buffalo beats Worcester, 7–1.

28th  James S. Woodruff is apprehended on charges that he tried to bribe Cleveland’s John Clapp to throw a game earlier in the season. By going to the police after the incident, Clapp has earned the nickname “Honest John.”

Will Hutchison pitches his first game for Yale, beating Harvard, 8–5. After starring at SS for 3 and a half seasons, he will pitch Yale to the college championship in his final year.

1881 July

2nd  Boston loses in Buffalo 7–4, and the Reds fall to last place for the first time in the clubs’ proud 10-year history.

4thMickey Welch pitches Troy to two victories in Buffalo, 8–3 and 12–0, allowing a total of 10 hits. As noted by historian John O’Malley of NYC, this is Welch’s 16th straight win over Buffalo (5/29/1880 to 7/4/1881). Bob Ferguson is 6-for-10 in the doubleheader, the first ever separate admission morning-afternoon twinbill.

Detroit also plays a doubleheader, beating visiting Worcester, 11–8 and 7–3.

5thChicago beats Boston 13–11 in a game in which the lead changes hands 4 times.

7thBoston errors help Chicago to a 5–4 win. By contrast, Silver Flint, Chicago catcher, stops a Boston rally by strategically dropping a 3rd strike to start a DP with the bases loaded.

12thChicago continues its winning ways beating Worcester, 12–6. Ned Williamson has a perfect day at the plate with 3 singles, a triple and homer.

13thLF Mike Moynahan throws 2 runners out at home to help Cleveland beat Troy, 3–2.

16thSecond place Buffalo nips leading Chicago, 10–9. Dan Brouthers ties the game with a 2-run triple, then scores the winning run.

18thBoston outhits Troy 7 to 3, but still makes enough errors to lose, 3–1.

20thBuffalo completes a 3-game sweep of Chicago, winning 11–7, and reducing Chicago’s lead to 3 1/2 games.

21st  Cleveland loses at Akron 4–0 in a game that takes just 1:18 to complete, the shortest game any of the reporters can remember.

22ndChicago loses to Detroit 6–4 as all 3 potential base stealers are thrown out by Detroit C Charley Bennett.

23rdThe Only Nolan is 4-for-4 and pitches Cleveland to a 7–3 win over Buffalo. Yesterday, Nolan was 4-for-5 while playing 3B.

26thChicago snaps its 5-game losing streak with a 9–4 win in Detroit. George Gore has 2 triples and a single.

28thFred Dunlap has 4 hits to pace Cleveland to a 11–2 win over Chicago.

29thOld Dickey Pearce is given a benefit in New York on the 25th anniversary of his joining the old Atlantic club. He’ll use the proceeds to set himself up with a “wine saloon” in Brooklyn.

30thFred Dunlap is 4-for-5, completing a series in which he goes 11-for-14 and handles 25 of 27 chances at 2B. However, Chicago salvages the final game in the series, 7–6, and stealing 7 bases.

1881 August

2ndHaving finally rounded into shape, John Ward pitches and bats Providence to a 2–1 win over Troy. He pitches out of a bases-loaded, no out jam in the 9th and then singles home the winning run in the 11th.

The first note of an intentional base on balls with the bases loaded occurs when Abner Dalrymple of Chicago (NL) is intentionally walked by Buffalo’s Jack Lynch (BUF NL) in the eighth inning (as noted by Trent McCotter) The Chicago Tribunewrites: “At one time, when the bases were full, Lynch deliberately sent in seven balls (the rule at the time is seven balls constitutes a walk) rather than take the chances of a hit by Dalrymple, who was at bat, and in this way forced a run upon Chicago. But all to no purpose, for Gore followed with a terrific drive for two bases, and three men came in on the hit.” The Tribunefurther notes: “In the eighth the bases were filled, and nobody out, on successive hits by Goldsmith, Flint, and Quest, and Lynch was so afraid of Dalrymple that he gave him his base on balls and brought Goldsmith in with the gift.” At the time of the intentional walk, the Buffalo team was down, 5-0; they end up losing, 11-2.

3rd Jack Farrell quits as Providence captain and is succeeded by Tommy York. The team was 24-27 under Farrell.

4thLarry Corcoran of Chicago stops Buffalo on 2 hits, 4–0, and the Whites give him errorless support.

5thDetroit releases 3B Art Whitney because he is unable to play due to illness. They will resign him late in the season after he recovers.

6thA 4-hitter by Fred Goldsmith gives Chicago a 3–0 win over Buffalo and a sweep of their 3 game series. The Bisons are now 7 games behind.

8thProvidence C Emil Gross snaps tendons in his leg and is out for the season.

9th  “The delicious uncertainty of baseball” (New York Mercury) is demonstrated at the Polo Grounds when the Atlantics score 11 runs in the 9th inning to beat the Mets, 14–12.

11th  In the most one-sided game of the NL season, Chicago trounces Detroit, 17–0. Fred Goldsmith pitches for Chicago against Frank Mountain, and Silver Flint is 5-for-5. He also catches his 9th straight game without a passed ball.

12th  The Providence club is reorganized. New capital is pledged. C. L. Gardiner is the new president, and Robert Morrow replaces James Bullock as manager.

13thHoss Radbourn leads Providence to a 1–0 win over Boston, pitching a 4-hitter and knocking in the only run with a single.

14th  Statistics published in the Chicago Tribuneput Dan Brouthers at the top of the batting list with a .390 average. Cap Anson is second with .377. Official figures at the end of the season will declare Anson batting champ with a .399 average, Brouthers finishing 7th at .318.

16thFor Buffalo, Blondie Purcell is 4-for-4 and Jack Rowe hits a pair of 2-run triples. But Chicago gets home runs from Gore and Burns and beats the Bisons, 13–9.

17th  Worcester suspends its captain, Mike Dorgan, and Harry Stovey takes over the post. Lee Richmond, who had quit because of conflicts with Dorgan, rejoins the team.

18th  The declining fortunes of the Worcesters receive a further blow when Art Irwin suffers a broken leg during a game in which the team blows an 8–0 lead and has to settle for an 8–8 tie with Providence.

21st  The Eclipse club refuses to allow black C. M. Fleetwood Walker to play for the visiting Cleveland Whites in a game in Louisville, much to the disgust of many fans and sportswriters. Walker later becomes the first African-American to play ML baseball with the Toledo (AA) club in 1884.

Buttercup Dickerson starts 2 double plays from LF as Worcester beats Boston, 6–1.

22ndWorcester signs veterans Candy Nelson and Lip Pike, both from the Atlantic club of Brooklyn.

23rd  When P Fred Goldsmith is injured in the 3rd inning, substitute Larry Corcoran is called in from the turnstiles, where he was monitoring the count for the visiting Chicagos. He pitches 9 innings as the White Stockings win a 12-inning game in Detroit, 8–6.

27thTony Mullane makes his ML debut with Detroit and shows outstanding speed in beating Chicago, 9–1. A finger injury and wildness will lead to his release a month later.

29thProtecting a 5–4 lead with men on 2B and 3B in the 9th, Troy’s Tim Keefe strikes out 3 batters in a row to beat Boston.

30thAnson and Flint have perfect days at the plate as Chicago pounds out 21 hits to beat Detroit, 12–8. The loss drops Detroit into a tie for 3rd place with Providence.

1881 June

1stHaving lost all three games he pitched this year, Tommy Bond is released by Boston. He had won 149 games for the Reds in 4 seasons.

7thAided by 4 errors by SS Art Irwin and the one-sided decisions of ump W.W. Jeffers, Chicago wins easily in Worcester, 13–1.

9th  Buffalo wins a 13-inning thriller 1–0 in Boston to move into a tie for first place with Chicago, which loses to Worcester, 7–6. Dan Brouthers is the star, saving the game with a one-handed catch in LF and then tripling and scoring the only run.

13thPlaying no favorites, Worcester SS Irwin makes errors that allow Buffalo to score 6 of its runs in a 10–9 victory.

15thHaving originally been scheduled to play an exhibition in Albany, the Troy Trojans play off yesterday’s rainout versus Cleveland in the capitol city. This is one of 7 NL games that Troy will play in Albany in 3 seasons.

16th  Buttercup Dickerson goes 6-for-6 as Worcester beats Buffalo’s John Lynch, 15–4, and knocks the Bisons out of first place.

17thBoston thrills a Bunker Hill Day crowd of 6325 by upsetting Chicago, 6–3.

18th  The Washington Nationals disband, blaming lack of interest since the club failed to land a berth in the NL.

20th  A new Red Stocking team in Cincinnati takes the field for the first time. This club would be among the founders of the American Association next year and would eventually become the NL Reds.

21stSluggers go back to back for the first time as Dan Brouthers and Hardy Richardson hit consecutive home runs in the 8thinning against Troy’s Mickey Welch. But the Trojans beat Buffalo, 8-7.

22nd  Two NL teams play the Mets in the same day, Detroit winning the morning game at the Polo Grounds 5–1, Buffalo winning the afternoon contest 9–1.

24th  Returning home from a long road trip, the Chicago White Stockings unveil new lavender uniforms, much to the amusement of the press. An unamused Larry Corcoran then tosses an 8–0 shut out over Providence.

25th  Chicago’s George Gore steals 7 bases as the Whites beat Providence, 12-8. Gore steals second 5 times and 3rd twice, scoring 5 runs in 5 trips. This record will be tied only once, by Billy Hamilton on August 31, 1894. Stolen bases are not an official stat, but the Chicago Tribune reports the thefts.

26thIn Louisville, Akron and Eclipse battle to a 19-inning, 2–2 tie. A lightning relay to the plate by 2B Fred Pfeffer in the 18th saves the game for the hometown Eclipse.

27thChicago wins a slugfest from Providence, 19–12. This ups the Whites’ lead to 4 1/2 games and drops the last-place Grays to 10 1/2 games behind.

29thIn New York, the Democrats beat the Stalwarts (Republicans) 58-26 in a game played by members of the state legislature as a benefit for families of the men killed during the construction of the new NY State Capitol Building.

30th  There are 217 called balls and other interminable delays in Chicago’s 4–2 victory over Troy. The lengthy game takes all of 2 hours and 20 minutes.

1881 September

2ndJim Galvin allows 13 hits but bangs out a single, double and triple to help Buffalo to a 14–6 rout of Detroit.

3rd  CF Lip Pike makes 3 errors in the 9th inning to give Boston 2 runs and a 3–2 victory over Worcester. The losing club immediately accuses Pike of throwing the game and suspends him.

8thJack Rowe is 4-for-4 to help Buffalo beat Chicago, 10–1, in the opener of the final series between the two leaders. Chicago will win tomorrow to take a 6 1/2 game lead with 13 to play.

10th  In a game in Albany, Troy’s Roger Connor hits the first grand slam in NL history, and the first “ultimate” grand slam. The blow, with his team 3 runs down, comes off Worcester’s Lee “Ruby Legs” Richmond with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th inning and wins the game, 8–7.

12thJohn “Chub” Sullivan, who had been the Worcester captain this spring before falling ill, dies in Boston.

14thFifteen errors by the Wolverines allow Providence to beat Detroit, 4–1.

15th  Buffalo 2B Dave Force makes 2 unassisted DPs, participates in two other DPs, and starts a triple play in a 12-inning 7–6 loss at Worcester. Only two other second basemen (Claude Ritchey, 7/9/1899 and Mike Edwards 8/10/1978) will make two unassisted DPs in one game.

16th  Chicago clinches the pennant with a 4–0 victory in Boston. Mike Kelly is 4-for-4, scoring 2 runs and driving in 2.

17th  Boston informs its players that it will release them on October 1st and not pay them the last month of their salaries.

20thEd Nolan, John Clapp, and Jim McCormick all miss the Cleveland game in Worcester because their return from a side trip to NYC is delayed by a train wreck. The club fines each $100. The Blue Stockings win without them, 6–5.

23rd  Boston LF Joe Hornung makes 10 putouts and one assist as the Reds beat Buffalo 4–3. This one-game record of 11 chances accepted by a LF still stands.

25th  Although the league has offered membership to the Mets and the Athletics and been turned down, it is announced that all 8 teams from this year will be back in the NL next season, a first for the league.

27thAt Troy, NY, Chicago plays its last game of the year, winning 10–8. A heavy rain storm throughout the game keeps the attendance to 12, a ML record for the smallest crowd. The number of errors by the two teams exceeds the crowd size: 14.

The Detroit team receives just $107.55 as the visitors’ share in 3 games in Worcester, which means the average attendance is under 240.

Charles Radbourn has a no-hitter broken up with one out in the 9th when Fred Dunlap hits a double. Rad settles for a 6–0 one-hitter, his second one-hitter in a month.

29th  At an NL meeting in Saratoga Springs, NY, the league adopts a blacklist of ten players who are barred from playing for or against any NL teams until they are removed by unanimous vote of the league clubs. The reason for the blacklisting is “confirmed dissipation and general insubordination.” These men are: Sadie Houck, Lip Pike, Lou Dickerson, Mike Dorgan, Bill Crowley, John Fox, Lew Brown, Emil Gross, The Only Nolan, and Ed Caskins.

At Worcester, the last-place Ruby Legs beat the first-place Chicago White Stockings, 12–4. Harry Stovey has a grand slam, the second in league history, for the winners. It comes off Larry Corcoran. Chicago will win tomorrow, 11-4, to close out the season for both teams.

30th  The NL meeting adopts an “ironclad” contract that gives the club the right to fine a player for any conduct the club deems detrimental to its interest. Furthermore, the player assumes the responsibility for all risks of injury or illness and must pay for his own medical treatment.

1881 October

1st  The Mets beat the champion Chicagos in New York, 7–4. The Mets are the only non league team to have won more than one game versus NL opposition.

8th  Chris Von der Ahe, president of the corporation that runs Sportsman’s Park in St. Louis, signs the members of the previously independent St. Louis Browns semiprofessional club, giving Von der Ahe control over the players for the first time. This is a key step toward the establishment of the club that would eventually become the St. Louis Cardinals.

10th  Cincinnati baseball backers meet in Pittsburgh with H. Denny McKnight and issue a call to other independent club operators to meet November 2nd to form a major league independent of the NL.

15th  H. D. McKnight organizes a new Allegheny Baseball Club of Pittsburgh in anticipation of the proposed new league.

16thThe Mystics beat Oakland, 12–10, to win the loosely organized California League championship.

31st  The Metropolitan club plays its final game of the season. The Mets played 151 games altogether, winning 80 of them. They were 18-43 versus NL teams.

1881 November

2nd  The American Association of Professionals is founded with the motto “Liberty to All.” The members are St. Louis, Cincinnati, Louisville, Allegheny, Athletic, and Atlantic. This AA will be considered a major league.

3rd  The AA elects H. D. McKnight as its president. It votes to honor the NL blacklist in the case of drunkenness but not to abide by the NL reserve clause. The new league will rely on home gate receipts, visiting teams getting just a $65 guarantee on the road, as opposed to the NL’s policy of giving 15¢ from each admission to the visitors. The AA will allow Sunday games, liquor sales, and 25¢ tickets, all prohibited by the NL.

1881 December

1stThe Buffalo club meeting reveals the Bison’s home attendance for 1881 was just over 32,000.

7thAt the NL annual meeting the owners reject the applications of Phil Baker and Charley Jones for reinstatement.

8th  The NL adopts a few new playing rules: the 3-foot line along 1B is adopted for the first time; runners can no longer be put out returning to their bases after foul ball not caught; the fine for pitchers hitting batters with pitches is repealed; the “block ball” rule allowing runners to take as many bases as possible on balls going into the crowd, the fielding team being able to put them out only after returning the ball to the pitcher in his box.

21stThe Boston club meets and elects a new board of directors, who will retain Harry Wright as manager. The club reports an operating surplus of $75 on home attendance of around 35,000.

22ndHarry Wright signs to manage Providence for 1882.

23rdThe Western Inter-collegiate Base Ball Association is formed by Northwestern, University of Michigan, and Racine College.

1882 February

4th  NL players are now responsible for carrying their own bats and uniforms on road trips. They are also required to purchase and keep clean 2 complete uniforms, including the white linen ties to be worn on the field at all times.

25th  Providence players and their opponents will be expected to parade down the streets of Providence in full uniform, accompanied by a brass band, on game days in order to encourage attendance.

1882 March

11th  In retaliation for the “theft” of Sam Wise and Dasher Troy by the NL, the American Association creates a loophole allowing all players either blacklisted or expelled by the NL to join AA clubs after appealing to a special commission.

Providence will be selling season tickets for $15 until March 15, when the price will be raised to $20.

25thA fence has been erected on the Recreation Ground in San Francisco which forces the left fielder “to play over the fence, causing the players much inconvenience.”

1882 January

7th  The NL will continue the practice of using different color patterns on uniforms for the different positions. Third basemen will wear gray and white uniforms, as the blue and white uniforms originally sought were “impossible to obtain.”

14thPhiladelphia officials, justifiably proud of their new multi-purpose baseball park, declare that it “will be placed in first-class condition for base ball, football, lacrosse and law-tennis; also bicycle and pedestrian performances.”

20th  The Kentucky Legislature modifies a recently passed law which inadvertently prohibited the playing of baseball games in the commonwealth.

1882 April

10th  NL president William Hulbert dies in Chicago. A. H. Soden, president of the Boston club, is appointed as temporary replacement. In December A.G. Mills will be officially elected president of the league.

Stellar rookie Tony Mullane of the Eclipse of Louisville injures his foot running the bases in an exhibition game against Detroit.

29thThe Eclipse will wear gray uniforms, like their discredited 1876-77 predecessors, instead of blue ones.

The jewelers of Providence and New York are anxiously preparing for their annual baseball game. The New York Clipper notes that “all of the men named are bone fide jewelers, and all of them are experienced ball players.”

1882 May

1stIn the season opener in Boston, the Red Stockings defeat Worcester, 6–5, in the bottom of the 10th as John Morrill scores on a wild pitch. Jim Whitney is the winner.

4thDetroit wins a 1–0 nail-biter in Cleveland. A local reporter declares afterwards that “it was one of those games that keeps a man 4 inches from his seat for 2 hours, at the same time wishing he could thump the nearest small boy.”

5th  Cap Anson is called out for walking back to his base after a foul ball, instead of running, as the rule specifies. This rule will be amended at the end of the season. Cap’s Chicago team beats Cleveland, 7-6.

Undefeated Providence makes sauce of Worcester, winning 17-2.

6th  Boston bowls over the Troy Trojans, 18-3, as Joe Hornung becomes the first player to hit 2 triples in one inning. He does it in the 8th.

10th  Approximately 1,000 people watch the first Chicago home game for free from a nearby viaduct. Chicago officials will attempt to eliminate this “unfair opportunity to beat the gate.” But today fans are able to see Chicago beat Cleveland, 8–4.

13th  NL players are relieved to hear that next season they will not be required to wear the uniforms known as “clown costumes,” with different color combinations for each position.

16th  The scheduled Cincinnati-Allegheny game is switched to Cincinnati because of floods in Pittsburgh.

17thCharles Buffinton begins his career with a bang as he pitches Boston to a 4–0 win over Worcester. He will go on to win 233 games.

A Boston court refuses a restraining order requested by the Cincinnati club on Sam Wise, who remains with Boston.

18thTroy scores 3 runs in the bottom of the 9th to defeat Chicago in Albany, 5–4. On the 20th, after its ball park is completed, Troy wins its first true home game, over Boston, 14–3.

19thDetroit moves into first place outlasting Buffalo, 14-11. Curry Foley has a grand slam for Buffalo, off George Derby, in the 9thinning.

20thAfter tying the game in the bottom of the 9th, the Yale freshman beat the Harvard freshmen in 11 innings, 5–4. Afterwards, “persuant to custom the Yale freshmen were permitted to-night to take seats on the college fence in honor of their victory. . . .”

The New York Clippercalls the new policy of not charging an at-bat to a batter who walks “nonsense.”

22ndFor the 2nd game in a row, Philadelphia scores in the bottom of the last inning to defeat its cross-town rival, the Athletics. The 2 games attract nearly 18,000 spectators.

23rdCleveland wins dramatically in the bottom of the 10th with 2 out as 3 Buffalo players collide chasing Mike Muldoon’s single, 4–3.

25thBuffalo revenges yesterday’s loss by humiliating Cleveland at home, 20–1, as Curry Foley hits for the cycle, the first in ML history. His homer is a grand slam, off George Bradley, his second in a week.

26thCleveland scores 9 runs in the 1st inning and hangs on to beat Buffalo, 9–8.

27th  After breaking his finger in a game against the Metropolitans, Philadelphia IF Mike Moynahan has the finger amputated at the first joint. He will play in the AA for Philadelphia for 2 years before retiring.

Despite recording a triple play in the 8th, the Athletics lose 10–9, as St. Louis scores twice in the bottom of the 9th.

Providence moves past Detroit into 1st place in the NL by defeating Boston, 4–1.

29thIn yet another exciting game, Buffalo Counters 4 Cleveland 9th inning runs with 2 of their own to win 9–8.

30thTroy hosts a pair of games with Chicago, losing the opener, 9-3, before rebounding with a 5-4 win. This is the first morning-afternoon separate admission twinbill on Memorial Day.

At Boston, the Buffalos (NL) pull off a controversial triple play but still lose to the Bostons, 11-3. The play (as recounted in TSN, April 5, 1916) occurs when John Morrill strikes out with the bases loaded and no outs, and catcher Jim White deliberately drops the third strike. He then throws to 1B Dan Brouthers who fires to 2B Hardy Henderson who relays to 3B Davey Force for the triple killing. Boston argues that because Merrill made no attempt to run, the play should be dead. The on field decision will be upheld but the rule will be changed at the winter league meetings.

31stTroy uses a 7th inning triple play to help them beat Chicago, 5–2.

Between 10,000-12,000 cranks watch Yale beat Princeton, 15–8, at the Polo Grounds.

1882 June

1stOnly 50 people witness Worcester’s 13–3 loss to the visiting Cleveland team.

3rdDetroit and Boston play to a 14-inning 4-4 tie.

Troy outfielders Pete Gillespie and John Cassidy collide in the 1st inning in a game against the Metropolitans. Cassidy is unhurt but Gillespie is knocked out and removed from the game.

5th  Boston defeats Detroit 10–2. According to the Chicago Tribune, this is the first time a team scoring in double figures does so entirely with earned runs.

6th  William “Blondie” Purcell of Buffalo is fined $10 for slicing open a soggy baseball. He did this to compel the umpire to put a fresh ball in play so his P Pud Galvin might be able to throw a curve.

Catcher Pop Snyder of Cincinnati starts a triple play against Baltimore by deliberately dropping a 3rd strike with the bases loaded in the 1st. This defensive gambit will be outlawed at the end of the season.

Charley Jones loses his lawsuit against his Cincinnati club for payment of salary due him. He’ll appeal.

10thThe Eclipse score 6 runs in the bottom of the 12th to defeat the Athletics, 10–5.

15thAfter each team scores in the 10th, Boston comes from behind in the 11th to beat Chicago, 14–13.

20thLarry Corcoran goes 4-for-4 and hits Chicago’s first grand slam ever. It’s the only homer of his career. He also pitches his team to a 13–3 win over Worcester’s Lee Richmond.

22nd  In a battle between the top 2 teams, Providence scores 13 runs in the 3rd inning to devastate Detroit 15–5 and maintain its edge in the NL pennant race.

The Reds down Pittsburgh, 5-2, in 14 innings, preserving the win with a game-ending triple play, the latest in ML history. With runners on first and second, SS Chick Fulmer lets a pop fly drop. He picks it up and throws to 3B for a force, and the relay back to Fulmer and 2B for the second out, and the relay to 1B to beat the batter who was not running. The infield fly rule, to be enacted in 1895, will do away with this ploy.

24th  Dick Higham becomes the first and only ML umpire to be expelled for dishonesty. Higham, who had previously played OF and catcher for 6 different teams, was accused of advising gamblers how to bet on NL games. Acting on a complaint brought by Detroit mayor William Thompson, who is also president of the Detroit Wolverines, the league’s board of governors expels Higham. Higham, the first ump to use a protective mask, will end up as a bookkeeper in Chicago.

26thDetroit comes from behind with 3 runs in the bottom of the 14th to edge Worcester, 8–7.

28thAfter a scoreless 9 innings in Cincinnati between Baltimore and Cincinnati (AA), and a rain delay, both pitchers, Doc Landis and Will White, lose their grip on the wet ball and the teams each score 4 in the 10th. Cincinnati then posts another 7 runs in the 11th, with the help of a ML-record tying two triples by Harry Wheeler to win, 11–4. Joe Hornung of Boston had two triples in the 8th on May 6. Baltimore is now 3-24. (as noted by Cliff Blau, the box score runs in the July 8 New York Clipper)

29th  In the 4th inning of a game against St. Louis, the Eclipse leave the field to protest the continued use of an incompetent umpire. They also refuse to play the next 2 games, thus forfeiting 3 games to St. Louis. After a special AA meeting, the 2 teams agree to replay the last 2 games.

30th  A double play on a safe hit occurs in Chicago during the White Stockings 9-0 win over Boston (as recounted in TSN, April 5, 1916). Stocky Sam Wise is on 1B when Joe Hornung shoots a [later called] a hit and run single between 3B and short send Sam to third. Left fielder Abner Dalrymple fires to 3B Ed Williamson who puts the tag on Wise who had overslid the bag, and then fires to 1B Cap Anson to get Hornung who had gone too far towards second.

1882 July

4th  Buffalo’s Pud Galvin wins both ends of a doubleheader against Worcester, 9–5 and 18–8.

In a match between 2 top black teams, Pittsburgh defeats Washington D.C., 18–12.

10,000 disappointed St. Louis cranks see their team waste a come-from-behind rally in the 9th and lose to Allegheny in the 11th, 6–5.

6thIn what the New York Clipperdescribes as an “old-time” game, St. Louis outscores the Eclipse, 21–17.

8th  Chicago, in the midst of its first 9-game winning streak of the season, moves into first place with a 3–0 victory over Troy.

12th  Worcester beats Boston 4–1 to break a 14-game losing streak.

13th  During the 4th inning of a Cincinnati-Baltimore game, umpire Mike Walsh is surrounded on the field by angry spectators after a controversial call and is forced to take refuge in the Baltimore clubhouse for 15 minutes. Cincinnati wins the game 1–0.

18th  Switch pitching Louisville hurler Tony Mullane pitches both right- and left-handed in an AA game against Baltimore, the first time the feat is performed in the major leagues. Starting in the 4th inning he pitches lefthanded whenever Baltimore’s lefty hitters are at bat, while continuing to pitch right-handed to right-handed hitters. It works until the 9th when, with 2 outs, Charlie Householder hits his only HR of the year to beat Mullane 9–8. One newspaper account labeled the move a “novelty,” though the gloveless Mullane, who faced the batter squarely, evidently had a devastating pickoff move to 1B or 3B.

19thProvidence, struggling to regain the lead in the pennant race, scores in the 9th to beat Boston, 1–0.

24th  Chicago sets a NL record for runs by beating Cleveland, 35–4. Seven Chicago players get 4 or more hits and six score 4 or more runs, actually knocking the cover off 2 balls in the process. Abner Dalrymple and King Kelly each a record 8 plate appearances. The record will last until June 29, 1897, when Chicago will run up 36 runs against Louisville. Not surprisingly, this is the only pitching appearance of the season for Cleveland outfielder Dave Rowe, who allows all 35 runs. Chicago tallies 15 singles, 10 doubles, a triple, and 3 home runs.

26th  Paul Hines carries Providence into first place going 5-for-5 and scoring 4 runs, including the winner in the 9th, in a 6–5 victory over Worcester.

1882 August

3rdPud Galvin misses the Buffalo-Troy game because of illness. His replacement, Mickey Welch, loses the game to Troy, 7–3.

9thThe Providence Journal reports that “Silver Flint of the Chicago nine won yesterday’s game (August 9) with the help of Mr. Donald Patterson’s horses.” Patterson was in the grandstand and his coachman and horses were in deep center field under a tree that overhung the fence. With the game in extra innings, Flint hit a drive that rolled under the horses’ hooves preventing Paul Hines from retrieving the ball in a timely fashion. By the time the coachman had the horses under control, Flint had circled the bases for an inside-the-park home run giving Chicago a 3–1 win.

10thTroy scores 3 runs in the 9th to tie Detroit, then scores with 2 out in the 12th to win, 5–4.

14thBatting first, Pittsburgh (AA) gets right to it when Chappy Lane hits a 2ndinning grand slam, off Henry Myers, as Pittsurgh whips Baltimore, 14-1 (as noted by David Vincent).

17th In what is considered one of the greatest games in the 19th century, host Providence beats Detroit 1–0 in 18 innings on a HR by RF Charles Radbourn. Winning P Monte Ward and loser Stump Weidman both go all the way. Providence almost wins in the 16th when George Wright “hit a liner over Wood’s head and out of the horse gate, but Wood went outside, got the ball and fielded Wright out at the plate” (Detroit Free Press). This game will serve as the longest shutout in ML history until September 1, 1967, when San Francisco blanks Cincinnati 1–0 in 20 innings.

18thCleveland thwacks Worcester, 22–7, scoring in every frame except the 7th. Tomorrow they’ll win, 14–7.

19thProvidence beats Detroit, 9–8, and leads the NL by 3 1/2 games.

At Worcester, the Cleveland Blues double the Ruby Legs, winning 14-7. Both pitchers hit homeruns—Jim McCormick for Cleveland and Frank Mountain for the Rubys. Cleveland sweeps three games on the road, beating the Rubys by football-like scores: 13-10, 22-7, 14-7.

21stCleveland outfielder Dave Rowe, who surrendered a record 35 runs in his lone league pitching appearance last month, takes to the mound again and turns in a remarkable performance by tossing a one-hitter in an exhibition game against the Phillies. A single breaks up the no-hitter but Cleveland blanks the Philadelphias, 6-0. Next year, the Quakers will join the NL and compile a 17-81 record. (as noted in the TSN, April 5, 1916).

29thSt. Louis scores 3 in the bottom of the 9th to beat Baltimore, 3–2.

31stAfter each team scores 5 runs in the 9th, Troy and Detroit have to settle for a 10-inning, 9–9 tie.

1882 September

5th  Baltimore plays the first 4 innings of its game against Allegheny without its uniforms, which have been delayed at the Baltimore train station. Allegheny wins the game, 3–1.

7thJim O’Rourke is 5-for-5 to pace Buffalo to a 10–1 win over Worcester.

In a 4-1 Cincinnati win over the St. Louis Browns, Oscar Walker, a left-handed hitter for St. Louis, crosses up the shift put on by Cincinnati and lines a triple. All the Reds outfielders are in RF when Walker hits to left. This is one of the earliest records of a shift, as noted in the St. Louis Globe-Democrat (noted by Cliff Blau).

9th  After taking a 1–0 lead in the first inning, Troy loses to Chicago, 24–1, in a shortened 8-inning battle. Five Chicago players get 4 hits each.

11th  Tony Mullane of the Eclipse pitches a no-hitter over Cincinnati, 2–0. Tomorrow Mullane does not allow a hit until the 7th inning, and wins, 10–4.

12th  In a 10-4 Louisville victory, Pete Browning clubs a 6thinning grand slam off Harry McCormick as the Eclipse beat the Reds, 10-4. Cincinnati still leads the AA by 7.5 games, 10 more wins than Louisville [this is the last season that number of wins rather than winning percentage, will determine the leader].

In an 8-6 Pittsburgh win at Philadelphia, the Alleghenys get 1stt-inning homers from Billy Taylor and Chappy Lane off Sam Weaver. Historian Tom Thress notes that the Philadelphia Inquirer write-up gives the second homer to George Streif, although their box score gives it to Lane (as does the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette). Either way, Pittsburgh remains in fourth place in the AA.

14th  Chicago pushes past Providence into first place by defeating them, 6–2. Chicago will not relinquish the lead for the rest of the season.

18thAt Buffalo, little Bobby Mathews of Boston fans 4 batters in one inning en route to an 8–2 win. Mathews (as noted by historian Al Kermisch) strikes out White, Force, Galvin, and Foley, with the latter reaching 1B on a passed ball.

19th  Guy Hecker becomes the second Eclipse pitcher in 8 days to throw a no-hitter, defeating Allegheny 3–1.

20th  Chicago’s Larry Corcoran pitches the second no-hitter of his career by shutting out Worcester, 5–0. Frank Mountain takes the fall.

22nd  In a special NL meeting Troy and Worcester are kicked out of the league, to be replaced by teams from Philadelphia and New York. When the expelled clubs threaten to boycott the rest of the season, Chicago and Providence announce they’ll then play a best-of-9 series to determine the league championship. The boycott and series don’t take place. The Troy players make the best of the situation by breaking their 16-game losing streak, the longest of the season, beating Boston, 7–3. Troy will argue that it should stay in the league because of money spent on capital improvements, but they will be ousted at the December 2, 1882 meeting, with Philadelphia taking their place.

Chicago loses to Cleveland, 15–6, to break its 2nd 9-game win streak of the year.

In its 20–6 victory over Allegheny (AA), the Louisville Eclipse score in all 8 innings they bat. Even though the game is in Pittsburgh, Louisville bats last and does not need to hit in the 9th(according to historian David Nemec). They are the first team ever to accomplish the feat.

23rd Chicago’s Larry Corcoran follows up his no-hitter with a 3-hitter, stopping Cleveland, 8–0.

In the last day of play for the Alleghenies, rookie Jake Seymour debuts on the mound and loses, 13-3, to Louisville, Seymour puts his name in the record book with 5 wild pitches, a mark tied twice in the next four years. Pittsburgh wins the second game, behind Denny Driscoll, to finish at 39-39.

25thThe NL Worcester Brown Stockings come up with a baseball innovation—the doubleheader. It is the first instance of two games for the price of one admission: all previous doubleheaders called for two separate admissions. The last-place Brown Stockings will end their 3rd and final season in Worcester by drawing 6 and 25 fans for games against Troy on September 28th and 29th, then they will move to Philadelphia next season and adopt the name “Phillies.” Today’s two results in a Worcester win, 4-3, in the opener against Providence. Batting first in game 2, they lose, 8-6.

27thAt Chicago, the White Stockings beat Buffalo, 8–1, behind Larry Corcoran.

28th  Six dedicated Worcester “cranks” (fans), the smallest “crowd” in ML history, show up to watch their club lose to Troy, 4–1. Tomorrow the number of spectators is 25. Worcester loses again to their fellow lame-duck team.

The Reds score in the top of the 9th to beat the Eclipse, 1–0.

Behind Fred Goldsmith, the White Stockings win, 11-5, over Buffalo to clinch the NL pennant.

30thAt Lakefront Park, host Chicago trips Buffalo 6–5 as pitcher Larry Corcoran wins his 10th straight game (September 1- September 30). This is his second 10-game winning streak of the season: the first was June 29-July 29) Subbing at 1B, 16-year-old Milt Scott goes 2-for-5 for Chicago, while Ed Williamson is 5-for-5 and scores the winning run in the 9th.

1883 January

13th  Both of the New York ML clubs will play simultaneously at the Polo Grounds. Their fields will be separated by an 8-foot fence.

21st  In a game played in the Cuban professional league Ultimatum defeats Caridad 17-9 with the two teams combining for 60 errors (as noted by Kit Krieger). There was one earned run. The line score reads:

Ultimatum       142000055       17 15 21

Caridad            220010211         9 13 39

31st  A Baltimore fan loses a suit against Baltimore player Andrew Burns, who, while batting, accidentally let his bat slip from his hands, hitting the spectator. The judge rules fans had been warned to keep a safe distance from the field.

1882 October

4th  After 22 unsuccessful attempts, Cincinnati becomes the first AA team to defeat an NL team, beating Cleveland, 5–2.

6th  In the first post-season matchup between the AA and NL champions, Cincinnati shuts out Chicago, 4–0, behind Will White.

7th   In another matchup between the AA and NL champs, Chicago returns the favor by blanking Cincinnati, 2–0. Chicago scores both its runs in the 1stinning following a successful hit-and-run play with George Gore on 1B and Ned Williamson hitting. Following the game, Cincinnati, under pressure from the AA, reluctantly cancels the exhibition series to avoid expulsion from the league.

14th  Columbus, which will join the AA in 1883, is officially incorporated with $5,000 in capital stock.

28th  The Athletics reveal that in their first AA season they reaped a $22,000 profit, more than any NL team earned. This helps convince the NL that the AA is a viable league.

1882 November

18th  The case of the Allegheny Club versus Charles Bennett is won by Bennett. Prior to the 1882 season Allegheny signed Bennett to a $100 agreement which stated that he would sign an 1883 contract with Allegheny after the season. Instead, Bennett re-signed with Detroit. This case will later have bearing on the fight over the reserve rule during the Players’ League War of 1889-90.

22ndNew York owner John Day proposes a resolution to prohibit a team from signing a player who has broken the reserve clause of his contract. This resolution, eventually adopted by both the AA and NL, effectively changes the reserve clause from a device to protect owners from their own greediness to a weapon to be used against uncooperative players.

24thThe AA agrees to expand to 12 teams by admitting Brooklyn, Washington, Indianapolis, and Toledo.

1882 December

6th  At the NL meeting, Troy and Worcester are officially replaced by New York and Philadelphia. A. G. Mills is elected president. Starting in 1883, pitchers will be charged with an error after a walk, balk, wild pitch, or HBP. Catchers will be charged with an error after a passed ball.

2ndJohn O’Rourke wins a $205 settlement from Boston for salary payments due him in November of 1880.

9th  James H. Dudley, manager of a top black club in Richmond, VA, initiates discussion concerning the formation of a black league with teams from New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Baltimore, Washington, DC, and Richmond. On February 10, 1883, Pittsburgh manager W. C. Lee expresses interest in the plan, but nothing comes of it.

14th  At its first annual convention, the AA establishes the first permanent staff of umpires in ML history. Previously, the NL and AA umpires were local men hired on game day by the home club.

24th   Cleveland signs One Arm Daily to team up with Jimmy McCormick, the NL’s winningest pitcher, in a two man rotation.

1883 February

9thThe New York Grammar School League is formed. Only “regular attendees” will be permitted to play in the 14-team league.

17th  At a meeting between the AA and the NL at New York’s Fifth Avenue Hotel, the Tripartite Agreement (or the National Agreement) is drafted. In it the 2 leagues, along with the Northwestern League, agree to respect each other’s contracts, ending a brief period of player raids. Also, the reserve rule is amended to allow each team to reserve 11 players, an increase of 6. The National Agreement will usher in a period of peaceful coexistence, lasting until the Players’ League war of 1890.

27th  Benjamin F. Shibe, one of the original owners of the Philadelphia Athletics, patents an improvement to the baseball itself. By combining the ingredients of yarn, India-rubber, and cement, Shibe claims that his invention would better maintain the spherical shape of the ball even after repeated hits by baseball bats. Part of the improvements involved the tighter winding of the yarn and integrating the yarn in the cement to maintain the integrity of the sphere.

1883 May

1stOn opening day in the AA and the NL no less than 4 games are decided in the bottom of the final inning. The best of these is in Cincinnati, where the defending AA champs score 2 in the bottom of the 11th to win, 6–5.

New York wins its first league game, defeating Philadelphia, 7–5, at the Polo Grounds located at 110th street between 5th and 6th Avenues. The 5 Phillie tallies against Mickey Welch are all unearned. The opener attracts a crowd of 15,000+, including former President U.S. Grant.

2ndAt Boston, New York pitcher John Montgomery Ward clubs a 9thinning game ending homerun to give the New Yorkers a 3–2 win.

3rd  New York’s John Montgomery Ward becomes the first pitcher in history to hit 2 HRs in a game, giving him a 10–9 victory over Boston. Manager John Clapp drives home the game-winner with a single in the 9th.

Providence crushes Philadelphia, 24–6, with 26 hits, including 5 each by Paul Hines and Arthur Irwin. They are aided by Philadelphia’s catcher Bill Harbridge who commits 8 errors.

5th  In the first game in Chicago’s spectacular remodeled ballpark, featuring 41 uniformed attendants and private boxes built in front of the left field fence, Detroit scores with 2 out in the bottom of the 9th to win, 3–2. With a new rule considering balls hit over the fence to be homers, Chicago will increase their amperage from 13 homers in 1983 to 142 this year. Last year, a ball hit over the fence was a double.

12th  At newly built Washington Park, between Brooklyn’s Park Slope and Red Hook sections, opens for play. The home team is the Merritts (Interstate League), recently moved from Camden, NJ, who will play in the American Association after this one year of minor league ball. Despite seating for only 2,500 fans, 6,000 show up to cheer. After a warm-up by the 23rd Regiment Band, Brooklyn whips Trenton, 12–6.

13thSt. Louis defeats the Eclipse in the 9th, 4–3. More significantly, neither team makes an error.

15th  In St. Louis a meeting is scheduled to plan the taking of “active steps looking towards the foundation of a Colored League.”

22nd  Future evangelist Billy Sunday, playing for the Chicago White Stockings has a miserable ML debut, going 0-for-4 with 4 strikeouts against Spider Jim Whitney. But Chicago wins 4–3 behind the pitching of Larry Corcoran, at Lakefront Park.

25th  Cleveland forges into a 3-way tie for first place in the NL with Detroit and Providence by defeating New York in 14 innings, 4–3.

28th  At New York’s old Polo Grounds, heavyweight boxing champion John L. Sullivan pitches his team to a 20–15 victory in an exhibition of semipro teams. More than 4,000 fans are on hand to watch Sullivan play. He collects 3 hits—although critics charge he is served “gopher balls”— and makes 4 of his team’s 10 errors. For his efforts Sullivan pockets half of the proceeds—$1,595. On November 4th Sullivan will pitch another game.

The first of 2 games between Fort Wayne and Indianapolis is played under electric lights.

30thIt’s a busy and confusing Decoration Day of AA baseball. As part of a unique Memorial Day doubleheader, the Reds (AA) play in two different cities. The Reds start a 9:30 a.m. game at New York’s Polo Grounds, losing 1–0, then travel by train to Philadelphia where they fare better, scoring twice in the final frame and winning 10–8 in 11 innings. The Reds played the Athletics in Philley yesterday. The Metropolitans, after beating Cincinnati in the a.m. game, whip Columbus, 12-5 in the afternoon game. (This was on the western diamond of the original Polo Grounds on 110th Street, just north of the Polo Grounds. At the same time on the eastern diamond, the New York National League team was playing a doubleheader against Detroit, splitting 2–5 and 4–8. In between games of the New York-Detroit doubleheader, the first of which started at 10 a.m., was a game between Yale and Princeton to decide the college championship) Columbus is the loser on the day, dropping an a.m. game in Philadelphia 8–5. Meanwhile, Cleveland loses 3–1 in Boston in the morning, then travels to Providence to win, 5–2. Buffalo loses to Providence, 4–2 in the morning, then trains to Boston to lose, 2–1 in the afternoon. The Chicago (NL) White Stockings have the easiest of the day’s doubleheaders, feasting on the Phillies 15–8 and 22–4. In the 2ndgame, the Whites score 7 runs in the 1stand 9 runs in the 5thas Mike Kelly, Fred Pfeffer, and Tommy Burns make 3 hits apiece.

1883 March

14th  In a Northwestern League meeting, Peoria moves to ban blacks in order to prevent Toledo from playing star C Moses Fleetwood Walker. After an “exciting discussion” the motion is withdrawn and Walker is allowed to play.

30thCharles A Fowle, secretary of the St. Louis club from 1875-77 and one of the founders of the NL, dies in St. Louis.

31st  The Olympic Town-Ball Club of Philadelphia, the nation’s oldest ball club, celebrates its 50th anniversary.

1883 April

3rd  The Cleveland club visits the White House, where President Chester A. Arthur greets them by telling them that “Good ball-players make good citizens.”

7thAccording to the New York Clipper, “Manager Mutrie (of the Metropolitans) has made a new departure in base ball outfits in providing his players with shoes the uppers of which are made of sealskin which, besides being neat in appearance, promises to be very durable.”

15th  The first weekly issue of Sporting Life, edited by Francis Richter, is published in Philadelphia. This outstanding magazine will last, with a brief interruption, until July 1926. An article in the issue notes that the “gentlemanly and popular player Alonzo Knight will be the general manager of the [Athletic] club this year.” It also says in the article that Harry Stovey will be the field captain. This is the first mention of the term general manager (as noted by Skip McAfee).

23rd In a game against Dayton, Saginaw’s Yank Robinson tallies two doubles and a triple in the 6thinning (p. 257 of Balldom, as noted by Ernie Lanigan The Baseball Cyclopedia)) as Saginaw scores 20 runs.

24th  In a fit of depression, journeyman player Terry Larkin shoots his wife and a policeman and then attempts to commit suicide. Failing, he tries again the next day. Both his wife and the policeman survive. Larkin will play for several teams in 1884 before retiring.

29th  The new issue of The Sporting Lifehas a note about Hoss Radbourn: “Radbourne (sic), the Providence pitcher, now reverses his position while delivering the ball when a runner is at first base. This is to enable him to throw better to the base.” (as noted by Chuck McGill).

1883 June

2nd  Chicago commits 20 errors, while New York records 10, as New York defeats Chicago 22–7 in the sloppiest game of the year. One player on each team plays error-free.

Boston overcomes “stupid base-running” by Jim Whitney, leading to a 6th inning triple play, to defeat Buffalo, 2–1.

6thPhiladelphia takes its first home win in grand style, belting Detroit, 20–4.

8thFor the 2nd consecutive game Allegheny obliterates the Eclipse, taking the 2 games by a combined score of 28 to 6. In the 2nd game Ed Swartwood has 5 hits.

9th  After falling behind 5–2 in the 2nd inning, Boston rallies to whip Detroit 30–8. The teams combine for an untopped ML record of 110 at bats (Boston, 66; Detroit, 44). Paul Radford and Jim Whitney each get 5 hits, and Whitney sets a ML record by scoring 6 runs. Whitney pitches part of the game, then goes to the outfield. Four players have 8 plate appearances. This record will stand until 1886. Boston has 28 hits good for 46 runs, off Stump Weidman and Tom Mansell. For Mansell, usually an outfielder, his 6 2/3 innings pitched is his only appearance on the mound. He gives up 18 runs, 14 earned.

Despite 3 triples and a single by C Buck Ewing, New York loses to visiting Buffalo, 8–7.

Philadelphia (NL) receives permission to charge 25¢ for admission, instead of 50¢, to allow them to compete with their popular cross-town rivals, the AA-leading Athletics. Philadelphia’s attendance quadruples for the rest of the season.

In the first meeting of Cincinnati and Brooklyn teams in Brooklyn since the Atlantics broke the 2-season unbeaten streak of the legendary Red Stockings in 1870, winning 8–7, the Reds turn the tables winning today, 3–1.

11thCleveland takes over first place in the tight NL pennant race by beating Philadelphia, 7-0. Chicago drops to 3rdplace with a loss to Providence.

12thProvidence passes Chicago to take first place in the NL, beating their Windy City rivals, 8–1.

New York crushes Buffalo, 17–8, as Pete Gillespie has 5 hits and 5 runs.

Boston triumphs over Detroit, 20–9, as every player hits safely.

14th  With the Allegheny field “half overflown with water” following a series of floods in Pittsburgh, Columbus overcomes the waterlogged home club 25–10, scoring in every inning.

16th The New York Gothams introduce the concept of “Ladies Day,” which will become a baseball staple for nearly a hundred years. Ladies, escorted or not, are admitted free. New York whips Cleveland, 5–2.

18thIn Philadelphia, “the umpire, it is alleged, gave the visitors considerable assistance by his unfair manner of calling balls and strikes.” Buffalo wins, 11–2.

20th  Boston mauls Philadelphia 29–4, as Sam Wise goes 6-for-7 with 4 extra-base hits. Wise, Ezra Sutton, and Joe Hornung each score 5 runs, and Jim Whitney has 8 plate appearances. Philadelphia helps by committing 21 errors.

23rdHugh “One Arm” Daily of Cleveland shuts out Chicago, 3–0, with 14 strikeouts.

The first-place Providence Greys top the host New York Gothams, 12-4. The score would have been higher except for a base-running blunder by Jerry Denny, as reported in the New York Times: “Denny drove the ball into the bull pen in the sixth inning, and would have secured a home run without the ball going outside the fence had he not stepped directly over instead of upon the bag at third base, the umpire giving him out.” Denny will finish the year with 8 homers, tied for second place in the NL.

In front of 2,000 at the Polo Grounds, Princeton edges Yale in 10 innings, 3-2, handing the Elis their first loss of the year. But Yale wins the American Collegiate Association championship for the third year in a row, with Princeton second, followed by Amherst, Harvard and Brown.

28thAs noted in Sporting Lifeof July 1, Providence backup shortstop Joe Mulvey is shot in the shoulder while walking off the Providence Grounds with several players after a workout. The shooter, a fan named James Murphy, was aiming for teammate Cliff Carroll. Earlier in the day, Carroll had taken a hose and drenched Murphy. Murphy went home, got his gun, and returned to the park.

1883 July

1stSt. Louis thrills 12,000 home spectators by coming from behind in the 8th and defeating the Athletics in the bottom of the 9th, 9–8.

3rd  Chicago stampedes Buffalo, 31–7, as each Chicago player hits safely and scores at least 3 runs. Abner Dalrymple and Cap Anson each get 5 hits (including 4 doubles), and Dalrymple scores 5 runs. Three players (Dalrymple, Gore, Kelly) each have a record 8 plate appearances. Chicago sets a ML record with 14 doubles, amassing 16 extra-base hits and 32 hits overall, good for 50 total bases. All come off George Derby.

4th  Tim Keefe of New York wins both ends of a doubleheader against Columbus 9–3 and 1–0, allowing a 2-game total of 3 hits. Three days from now Columbus will eke out some measure of revenge, allowing New York only one hit (by O’Keefe) in a 3–0 win.

6th  Cincinnati (AA) thrashes Baltimore 23–0, setting a ML record for the most decisive shutout. The record lasts for 46 days. Will White is the winner over Hardie Henderson.

14thCleveland defeats Philadelphia, 9–2, to temporarily wrest the NL lead from Providence.

17thBuffalo pummels last place Philadelphia, 21–6, led by 5 hits by both Jim O’Rourke and Hardy Richardson.

Allegheny survives runs by the Mets in the 10th and 12th and wins in the 14th, 7–6.

19th  Buffalo defeats Philadelphia 25–5, getting 27 hits in the process. Dan Brouthers goes 6-for-6 with 2 doubles, and Jim O’Rourke again gets 5 hits.

21stProvidence sets its sights on 1st place with a 7–5 win over Detroit. While Cleveland loses to New York, 2-0. The Spiders also lose one of their two pitchers when Jimmy McCormick leaves the field in the 7thcomplaining of a sore elbow.

24thThe game between first-place Cleveland and second-place Providence is called off because of a flooded field. Apparently it was not rain, but the help of Cleveland manager Frank Bancroft that causes the delay (As noted in the September 7, 1884 Brooklyn Eagleand spotted by historian Frank Vaccaro). With his two stars, McCormick and Dunlap sick, Bancroft was looking for some excuse not to play the match When a slight rain began to fall, Bancroft saw his chance. Jumping into a hack he was driven rapidly to the base ball park. In an instant he quickly issued an order to the ground keeper to attach the hose (regular fire engine size) to a hydrant and play the stream on the grounds. He then took a position in the grand stand, where he could command a view of the streets leading to the gate. The hose continued to pour bucketful after bucketful of water over the diamond until the whole place was flooded, and the employee was ordered to desist. About noon Providence manager Harry Wright arrives to have a look at the grounds.

“I’m afraid we will have to call this game,” says Bancroft.

“Why?” inquires Harry.

“Oh, these are the queerest grounds you ever saw. They are flooded every time it rains.”

While they were talking they walked out on the field. Wright had not gone far before he sank into the soft soil above his shoe tops.

“I guess you are right,” agrees Harry.

So the game was postponed on account of a rain that did not lay the dust in the streets.

25th  Charles Radbourn throws a no-hitter as Providence beats top rival Cleveland, 8–0. Hugh Daily is the loser.

26th  Joe Gephardt of the Eclipse is forced to miss a game against St. Louis because of temporary paralysis. He will return to the lineup within 2 weeks.

Hoss Radbourn follows yesterday’s no-hitter with a 9-hit loss to Cleveland, 5–2, as One Arm Daily emerges with the win. The two teams will trade places atop the league five times in the next five days.

Detroit defeats New York, 2-0, as New York’s third baseman Tom Esterbrook goes into the record books with NL record 9 errors in two consecutive games. Frank La Porte will make 7 in two AL games in 1904.

27thBaltimore kicks Allegheny, 21–8, with every player collecting at least a hit and a run.

28th  In the first recorded game in Hawaii, the Honolulu Club wins over the Oceanic Club, 14–13.

30thIn one of the two 17–4 games of the day, Lon Knight of Allegheny (AA) hits for the cycle and scores 5 runs over hapless Philadelphia. In the other, Cincinnati tops Columbus.

1883 August

1stLed by Harry Stovey’s 10thhome run, off Denny Neagle, the Athletics (AA) swamp Pittsburgh, 19-2. Stovey is the first player to reach double figures in homers, and will total 14 for the year.

4thThe Mets counter 2 runs by Allegheny in the top of the 14th with 3 of their own to win, 7–6.

7th  Providence loses the NL lead permanently with a 6–4 defeat by Boston, while Cleveland beats Buffalo 5–2. For the 2nd straight season Providence holds the NL lead for more than twice as many days as any other team but does not win the pennant.

11thBoston P Jim Whitney muffs a popup, but catcher Mike Hines catches it before it hits the ground and starts a triple play. All the runners had taken off with the apparent error. Providence still wins, 6–2.

The Mets please 9,000 fans by defeating the first place Athletics in the bottom of the 9th, 3–2.

Frederick Thayer, the inventor of the catcher’s mask, and George Wright sue the Spalding Brothers Company for copyright infringement. The two will eventually lose their case.

14thIn a 7-inning game, Buffalo scores 4 times in the top of the 7th to beat Chicago, 19–17. Jim O’Rourke leads by hitting for the cycle.

18thThe Athletics defeat Columbus, 19–5, with 5 hits by Harry Stovey.

20th  After the Eclipse-Allegheny game, Allegheny players Billy Taylor, Mike Mansell, and George Creamer are each fined $100 and suspended indefinitely for drunkenness.

Behind Hugh Daily, Cleveland edges Chicago, 4-3. For One Arm, it is his 10thstraight win over Chicago.

21st  In the most lopsided shutout in ML history, Providence routs Philadelphia 28–0, as Larry Corcoran picks up the victory over Rhode Island native Art Hagen. The Phils will give up on the 1–14 Hagen and shuffle him off to Buffalo, where he will go 0–2.

24thSome 41,000 Athletic cranks watch a 4 game series with Cincinnati. The Reds take the final 3 matches.

25thChicago outlasts Buffalo, 18–14 as both clubs get 20 hits. Chicago’s Abner Dalrymple and Buffalo’s Jack Rowe go 5-for-6, and Rowe hits for the cycle.

29th Guy Hecker of Louisville (AA) gives up 4 hits to the A’s John Stricker, but picks him off 3 times. Getting caught off base three times will happen once more, in 1916 when Benny Kauff matches it.

1870 March

26th The first game of the season is played in Brooklyn at the old Star Grounds in Carroll Park. The amateur Star Club plays a practice game against a hand picked nine, including such renowned stars as Lipman Pike, Flanley, and George Hall. Candy Cummings pitches the Stars to a 5-inning, 19–7.

27th In a letter to the editor published in today’s New York SundayMercury, Cincinnati Red Stockings’ manager Harry Wright writes about hand signals, “There is one thing I would like to see the umpire do at (a) big game, and that is, raise his hand when a man is out. You know what noise there is always when a fine play is made on the bases, and it being impossible to hear the umpire, it is always some little time before the player knows whether he is given out or not. It would very often save a great deal of bother and confusion.” (as noted by Bill Deane)

1870 May

4th At Memphis, the Cincinnati Red Stocking defeat a local team, the Orientals, 100–2 in a game stopped at the end of six innings.

7th The highly regarded Mutuals of Brooklyn are soundly whipped by the amateur Stars, 14–3, behind the “dodgy delivery” of Candy Cummings.

12th In Cleveland, the Cincinnati Red Stockings defeat the Forest City Blue Stockings, 12–2.

13th The Unions of Morrisania, losing 6–3 in the 9thto the Philadelphia Athletics, score 4 runs inn the 9thto win, 7–6. Dick Higham helps with a home run.

14th The Atlantics open their season with a close, 8–1, win over the Stars. The Stars outhits the Atlantics, 8–6.

20th Gardner Brown, 15, is killed in Denver, N.H. while playing baseball. The ball strikes him on the head.

25th In Baltimore, the Atlantics of Brooklyn edge the Maryland Club, 13–12.

30t In a drizzling rain in Philadelphia, the Atlantics lose to the Athletics, 18–13.

31st The visiting Forest City of Rockford club, losers to the Mutuals yesterday, 21–13, rally today to beat the Mutuals, 17–16. The Mutuals blow a 14–4 lead as LF John Chapman drops 3 fly balls in the late innings. .

1870 June

3rdAt Dexter Park in Chicago, 3,000 fans watch the new White Stockings beat the Forest City club of Cleveland, 15–9. The game is marred by several wrong decisions by the umpire in favor of Chicago.

13thIn New York, a crowd of 7,500 pay $.50 each to watch the Red Stockings defeat the Mutuals, 13–3, in the first game of Cincinnati’s Eastern tour.

14th  After 84 straight wins, the Cincinnati Red Stockings lose 8–7 to the Atlantics of Brooklyn in the greatest game of the year. Twenty thousand spectators watch at the Capitoline Grounds. The Reds had won 24 games this season and 60 last year without a loss. Today’s game, played with a “dead ball”, is tied at the end of the 9th inning 5–5 and at that point Reds captain Harry Wright turns down a proposal that the game be called a draw. The Reds score twice in the 11th, but the Atlantics counter with 3 in their half. Bob Ferguson scores the winning run in the last of the 11th on a hit by George Zettlein. After the game a telegram to Cincinnati is sent: “Atlantics 8, Cincinnati 7. The finest game ever played. Our boys did nobly but fortune was against us. Eleven innings played. Though beaten, not disgraced. (signed) A.B. Champion, Cincinnati Baseball Club.”

15thAsa Brainard pitches a 5-hitter as the Red Stockings start a new winning streak, beating Morrisania, 14–0.

18thHenry Chadwick says, “For the fifth time during the week’s games, the Red Stockings lose the toss and were sent to bat, and as George Wright takes his stand and faces Cummings for the first time, the crowd is on the tip-toe of expectation to see whether George can hit the Star pitcher’s horizontally curved balls, for it is in the delivery of a ball which curves in or out to the right or the left as it leaves the hand of the pitcher that Cummings’ effectiveness as a pitcher lays.”

22ndA huge crowd is on hand in Philadelphia to watch the Athletics take on the Red Stockings. Cincinnati scores 2 in the 9thto win, 27–25. George Wright, who earlier has a home run, scores the winning run.  The Spirit of the Times(June 25, 1870) blathers on: “RED STOCKINGS VS. ATHLETICS—PHILADELPHIANS DEFEATED BY TWO RUNS. Philadelphia, so-called from the Greek by the Quakers who founded it, has long since changed in every particular but its name. Brotherly love there now means brotherly among the residents, but mankind outside the limits of that over-grown village is held in positive contempt, and when a stranger is dropped down there the people cannot make the fact too evident. Fortunate for the outside world, after the strongest exhibition Philadelphians could give this side of physical force of their own greatness, their inflated bodies were pricked, and they were reminded that the world without was entitled to some little recognition even from Philadelphians.”

25thThe earliest known reference to a defensive shift is mentioned in today’s TheNewYorkClipperreporting on a game between the traveling Red Stockings and the Atlantics of Brooklyn: “the Cincinnati fielders moved about in the field, according as the different batsmen came to bat” (as noted by historian Bill Francis at the Hall of Fame). By the end of the decade, more shifts will be noted.

28thOne of the earliest documented uses of a glove (as noted by author Darryl Brock) occurs in the Cincinnati Red Stockings game against the Washington Nationals in D.C. In a cable to the Cincinnati Commercial, a sportswriter wrote, “[Doug] Allison caught to-day in a pair of buckskin mittens, to protect his hands.” Allison, the regular catcher, suffers from bruised and “split-open” hands, and the Reds have played 8 games in 9 days.

The first of the annual series between the Atlantic and the Mutuals is played before 3,000 fans, one of the smallest crowds since 1864. Interest has diminished since the Red Stockings left town. The Atlantics score 5 in the 9thto win, 15–13.

1883 September

1stChicago scores 11 runs in the 3rd inning en route to a 21–7 thrashing of Cleveland. Chicago collects 9 doubles with Abner Dalrymple and Fred Pfeffer each getting 4 hits. It must feel good, because Chicago toddles again in 5 days.

3rd  Philadelphia breaks its 14-game losing streak, the longest of the year, by defeating Providence, 6–3.

Buffalo defeats Detroit, 12–4, as Jim Lillie hits the only NL grand slam of the year. It’s the first homerun for the rookie.

4th  Columbus crushes Baltimore, 21–4, behind Tom Brown, who goes 6-for-7 with 5 runs and 4 extra-base hits.

6th  Chicago uses the big inning to roll against Detroit, winning, 26–6. Chicago sets a ML record by scoring 18 runs in the 7th inning as Tom Burns sets records by going 3-for-3 with 2 doubles and a HR and scoring 3 runs. Fred Pfeffer and Ned Williamson also collect 3 hits in the inning, while Goldsmith, Billy Sunday and Kelly have two apiece. Chicago tallies 6 doubles in the inning, a record that won’t be topped until Boston hits 7 on August 25, 1936. Fourteen runs score before the first out and before manager Dan O’Leary changes pitchers. Detroit scores zero, but the 18 runs in the 7th is actually a record for 2 teams as well. All Chicago hitters have 3 or more hits, except leadoff hitter Dalrymple with 2. Detroit Free Press editor Charles Mathison, in listing the box score, writes, “The Free Press would be pleased to submit the full score of this remarkable game to its readers, but the Western Union Telegraph Company, which has no excuse for its poor service, has furnished it bobtailed and in ludicrous deformity (no assists or errors are listed) it is submitted below. The company was requested to supply the missing links, but the head operator declined to do so.”

The Athletics cling to their lead in the AA by defeating second-place St. Louis, 4-3, for the 3rd consecutive game. Over 45,000 fans attend the series.

8thWith Chicago winning 12–8 over Detroit, the team concludes an extraordinarily successful series. Chicago outscores their opponent in the 4-game series by a combined score of 65–16.

At Philadelphia, New York scores 13 runs in the 3rd inning to coast to a 16–6 win over the Phils. The game is called after 8 innings because of darkness as “the baby actions in the box” (NY Times) by the Phillie pitchers delays the game.

10th  Chicago loses to Boston 4–2, breaking its 11-game winning streak, the longest of the season.

Cincinnati slugger John Reilly hits two homers, a club first, in a 12-6 win at Bank Street Grounds. Both homers are inside-the-park.

11th  Boston scores 2 runs in the top of the 9th to top Chicago 3–2, taking over the first place. Boston will not relinquish the lead for the remainder of the season.

12th  At a meeting in Pittsburgh, the Union Association is formed. The UA states its intention to ignore the reserve rule.

Cincinnati (AA) mauls Allegheny 27–5 collecting a club-record 33 hits. Warren “Hick” Carpenter and “Long John” Reilly each get 6 hits, while Reilly scores 6 runs and hits for the cycle. Charley Jones has 5 hits for the Reds. The 17 hits by three players sets a record, tied in 1897.

13th  Hugh “One-Arm” Daily of Cleveland (NL) pitches a no-hitter, defeating host Philadelphia 1–0. Daily was on the short end of a no-hitter on July 25. Daily fans 2 and walks 3. An account of the game says that the ground at Recreation Park was in a “wretchedly soggy condition and this soon made the ball so mushy it was impossible to hit it effectively.”

At Recreation Park in Columbus, Ohio, The Athletics’ Jud Birchall hits a leadoff inside-the-park home run—his lone career homer—off Frank Mountain of Columbus as the A’s win, 11-5. The Athletics lead the AA by 3 1/2 games over the Browns, 3-0 losers to the Orioles.

15th  Philadelphia features an all-Yale battery as Al Hubbard catches Jack Jones, teammates on the Eli intercollegiate championship team, at Cincinnati. The Reds flunk Jones, beating him, 11–0, the A’s worst loss of the year. This was Hubbard’s 2ndand final game in the ML; he debuted two days ago in Columbus under the name Al West.

18th  Before the start of the Reds-Philadelphia game in Cincinnati, a wedding takes place at home plate. Assistant groundskeeper Louis Can marries Rosie Smith. The Reds collect $60 in cash and the visiting Athletics chip in with another $40. The novelty of the wedding attracts a crowd of 2,201, the highest Monday crowd of the year, who see the Athletics edge the Reds, 13–12.

19th  For the second time in a week, Cincinnati 1B Long John Reilly hits for the cycle, turning the trick against Philadelphia’s George Bradley in a 12-3 win. Bradley gave up baseball’s first cycle, in 1882, to Buffalo’s Foley.

25th  The Union League, later known as the Eastern League, is officially formed in New York.

26thThe St. Louis Browns (AA) stomp on the Alleghenies, winning 20-3, and pinning to losing on Jack Neagle. Neagle finishes the year at 5-23, pitching for three teams. His 3-12 record for Pittsburgh will earn him another year, and he will go 11-26 in 1884.

27th  Boston officially clinches the NL title, beating Cleveland, 4–1.

28th  After losing 2 straight games to the Eclipse, the Athletics rally in the bottom of the 10th inning, 7–6, to clinch the AA championship.

1883 October

10th  Jim Devlin, a former star pitcher for the Louisville Grays (who was expelled from baseball in 1877 for his role in throwing a series of games at the request of gamblers), dies in Philadelphia. Before his death he served as a policeman.

23rdAlexander K. Schaap, of Richmond, Virginia, patents an improvement to the catcher’s mask. Because catchers had difficulty removing their masks when a foul ball above the plate was hit, Schaap adds a hinge to the upper part of the mask.

1883 November

22nd  New York owner John B. Day proposes a resolution to prohibit a team from signing a player who has broken the reserve clause in his contract. This resolution, eventually adopted by both the AA and the NL, effectively changes the reserve rule from a device designed to protect owners from their own greediness to a vindictive weapon to be used against uncooperative players.

24th  The AA agree to expand to 12 teams by admitting Brooklyn, Washington, Indianapolis and Toledo.

1883 December

13th  The Ohio League is formed.

15th  In Louisville a “first-class colored team” is formed. The team, later known as the Falls Cities, becomes one of the nation’s best black teams. It joins the National Colored Base Ball League (NCBBL) in 1887, but apparently disbands shortly after the collapse of the NCBBL in the first week of its season.

1884 January

4th  The newly organized Union League changes its name to the Eastern League to avoid confusion with the new Union Association. The EL continues today as the AAA International League.

Pitcher Larry Corcoran, who had signed with Chicago of the outlaw UA, breaks his contract to re-sign with his old club, Chicago’s NL White Stockings.

10thAt the annual meeting of the minor-league Northwest League, 1st-place Toledo is declared the league champion for 1883. But because Toledo has moved from the NWL to the major league AA for 1884, the NWL pennant is awarded to 2nd-place Saginaw, MI. The NWL also rescinds its prohibition of Sunday baseball and the sale of beer at its ball parks, thereby aligning itself with AA policy and against the NL policy.

12thIn a 5-inning game played on ice skates in Brooklyn, Chicago ace Larry Corcoran hurls his team of mostly amateurs to a 41–12 win over a team composed of mostly professionals. Corcoran’s team was assembled by veteran writer Henry Chadwick). In 4 days the pros beat Corcoran and another group of amateurs, 16–8.

30thTony Mullane, ace of the 1883 St. Louis Browns (AA), and who signed for 1884 with the rival St. Louis Unions (UA), repudiates his UA contract and signs with the AA Toledo club. When Mullane signed with the UA, he was the first player to violate the National Agreement’s reserve clause.

The Chicago Union club inks One Arm Daily after pitcher Larry Corcoran returns the $1,000 advance he got for signing with the team. At the same time the New York owner John Day, drafts a resolution that permanently blacklists all players who sign with the Union teams.

1870 April

9th The amateur Stars, behind the pitching and hitting of Candy Cummings, wins, 27-8, over a hand-picked nine that includes Chapman, Ferguson, and Pike. Candy has 3 singles and a home run.

21st For the first time, two major teams open the season by playing a practice game. A crowd of 1,200 pays $.25 apiece to enter the Capitoline Grounds and see the Atlantics defeat the Unions of Morrisania, 24–10.

25th  Cincinnati begins a week of play in New Orleans with a 51–1 rout of the local Pelicans team. The Chicago White Stockings will soon arrive in town, marking the first time teams have gone this far south for spring training.

29th The Chicago White Stockings open their season in St. Louis, whipping the Union Club, 47–1.

1870 July

2ndIn Cincinnati, the Forest City Club loses to the Red Stockings, 14–13.

3rd  As reported in today’s New YorkClipper, the Knickerbocker Baseball Club of New York is formally withdrawing from the National Association of Base Ball Players to protest the evils that seem to be inherent in professionalism. This will be a forerunner of a strictly amateur association. Speculation is that the professionals will form their own association.

4thThe Red Stockings beat the Forest City Club, 24–7. in Cincinnati.

In Philadelphia, the Athletics use a lively ball to defeat the visiting Mutuals, 24–15. Sensenderfer has 2 singles and 3 home runs for the locals.

In Brooklyn, the Atlantics defeat the White Stockings, 30–20. Switch-hitting Bob Ferguson has 6 hits and totals 17 bases. Henry Chadwick says, “Using a lively ball the game has an abundance of batting and a lack of the fine points of the game.”

9thAfter losses to Atlantic, Mutual, and Union of Morrisania, Chicago finally win their first game in New York. The White Stockings beat the amateur Star Club of Brooklyn, 9–5.

11thAt Rockford, The Cincinnati Red Stockings score 8 runs in the 9thinning to tie Forest City at 16 apiece. Darkness ends the game in a tie.

18thHarvard University visits Cincinnati and almost defeats the mighty Red Stockings. Behind 17-12 going into the bottom of the 9th, the Reds score 8 runs to win, 20–17. George Wright has a bases-loaded double in the 9thand Doug Allison knocks in the winning run.

23rd  Five thousand spectators jam Dexter Park in Chicago to see the White Stockings play the visiting Mutuals of New York. Mutuals P Rynie Wolters holds the White Stockings to 3 singles and no runs, winning 9–0 for the first shutout game in big-time baseball history. George L. Moreland (Balldom, 1914) noted that previous to today’s game only five shutout games had ever been played. The New York Heraldwill use “Chicagoed” from now on to signify a shutout; the term survives until at least the late 1890s.

27th  After 104 victories and several road defeats, the Cincinnati Red Stockings lose their first game at home to the visiting Athletics of Philadelphia 11–7.

1870 August

1stWith the Mutuals playing in Cincinnati, the NYC sporting good store of Peck & Snyder displays the inning-by-inning score on their window by means of telegrams. Soon, Nassau Street between Ann and Beckman is blockaded. After the Mutuals fight back from a 9–1 deficit to take the lead, a mighty yell goes up. But the final telegram reads, Reds, 15, Mutuals, 12.

9thThe Mutuals even their series with the Atlantics by winning their 2ndmeeting, 9–5.

15thForest City of Cleveland loses their first game in the East, 15–9, to the Atlantics. Forest City is led by Jim White, considered the best catcher in the country.

16th  Fred Goldsmith, an 18-year-old pitcher invited by Henry Chadwick to demonstrate his curve ball at the Capitoline Grounds in Brooklyn, succeeds before a large crowd. Chadwick observes: “That which had up to this point been considered an optical illusion and against all rules of philosophy was now an established fact.” But Chadwick will soon credit Candy Cummings with the discovery of the “crooked pitch.” Goldsmith will win 20 or more games each year between 1880 and 1883.

18thThe versatile Jim White of Forest City pitches a two-hit, 13–0 victory over the heavy hitting Eckford Club. It is the first time in history that Eckford has been shut out.

20thThe Forest City Club edges the Star Club, 9–7, scoring 2 runs in the 9thinning.

29thThe Mutuals host the Philadelphia Athletics and score 5 runs in the top of the 9thinning to tie the score. The Athletics score 5 in their half to win, 12–7 (baseball custom has a coin flip giving the winner the choice between “ins” and “outs.” The games are not considered completed until both teams have played 9 innings)

1870 December

4th The New York Sunday Mercuryreports that “Rule 6 was amended by adding a clause to section 6 that prohibits any fence from being erected within 90 feet of home base, unless it be to mark the boundary of the grounds, in which case, if it be less than 90 feet, all passed balls touching such fence are to give one base.” (as noted by Richard Harshberger).

1871 March

17th  The National Association of Professional Baseball Players is formed in New York at a convention called together by Henry Chadwick. The meeting is held at Collier’s Saloon on the corner of 13th Street and Broadway. Playing rules will be the same as the amateur players’ with the exception of player compensation. Each club will play 5 games with the other clubs and the winner of 3 will have won that championship series. The league championship will be awarded to the team winning the most series against the other teams and not on a total wins or percentage basis as would be done in later years. Teams represented at the convention are: Athletics of Philadelphia, Boston Red Stockings (who hired Harry Wright to represent them after the Cincinnati Reds disbanded), Chicago White Stockings, Eckford of Brooklyn, Forest City of Cleveland, Forest Citys of Rockford, IL, Mutuals of New York, Nationals of Washington, DC, Olympics of Washington, and the Union Club of Troy, NY, known as the Haymakers. All but two of the teams put down a deposit of $10 with the Eckfords and the Atlantics of Brooklyn preferring to play independent of the new circuit. The surprising ninth entry in the new league is the Kekiongas of Fort Wayne, IN.

1871 April

6thThe Mutual club of New York leaves on the steamer GeneralBarnesfor Savannah, Georgia, where they will start their southern tour with a game on April 10.

10thThe Athletics of Philadelphia play their first practice game against a strong, picked nine. This is the first game at the new grounds at 25th and Jefferson, where professional baseball will be played for 21 years.

29th  The new ball grounds in Chicago, located at Randolph and Michigan on the lakefront, are opened as the White Stockings and a picked 9 play before 1,500 people. The New YorkClippersays: “They will have accommodations on their grounds to seat 6,500 people. With the single exception of being somewhat narrow, they will have one of the finest ballparks in the country.”

1871 May

4th  The first game played in the National Association is played at Fort Wayne, between the Kekiongas and the Forest Citys of Cleveland. Bobby Mathews shuts out the Cleveland team 2–0, one of only 4 shutouts in 1871 and the smallest score of the year. Jim White makes the first hit, a double, and participates in the NA’s first DP when he is caught off second on Gene Kimball’s fly ball. Second baseman Tom Carey makes the unassisted DP.

5th   At the Olympic Grounds, Al Spalding makes his organized ball debut, pitching the Boston Red Stockings to a 20-18 thriller against Washington. Using a baseball of his own making, Spalding allows 10 runs in the first two innings to the Olympics, which bat first. Spalding walks 10 batters, but Asa Brainard passes 18. Boston scores 5 runs in the bottom of the 9thfor the win.

8th  The visiting Boston Reds demolish the Brooklyn Atlantics 25–0 in the worst defeat in the history of the Brooklyn club.

In Chicago, Ezra Sutton hits the National Association’s first homer, off Chicago’s George Zettlein, connecting in the 4th inning with a blast over the center fielder’s head. In the 7th, Sutton, playing for Cleveland Forest Citys, connects again, but Chicago wins, 14–12.

16th  The first professional game ever played in Boston is played between the Red Stockings and the visiting Haymakers before 5,000. Boston has Harry Wright playing SS in place of his injured brother George. George will miss half the games played by the Reds, severely hampering their pennant chances. Troy wins 29–14, making 24 hits to Boston’s 13. None are for four bases. The Boston Evening Journalnotes the pivotal 7th inning: “The Haymakers now went to the bat, and by some heavy hitting, assisted materially by the fielding errors of the Bostons, scored eleven runs, but two or three being earned.”

25th  The heavily favored Mutuals are soundly defeated by the Haymakers of Troy, in Brooklyn, 25–10. Lipman Pike, the Troy 2B, collects 6 hits.

1871 July

3rdAt the start of a Mutuals-Haymakers game in Troy, NY, Captain Ferguson of the Mutes at first objects to the ball chosen for the game but finally consents. Troy then wallops the non-standard ball for a 37–16 win, with Steve King and Dickie Flowers collecting 6 hits each. Later, the Van Horn ball and the Ryan ball are found to each have the same amount of rubber but the former is “twice as lively.”

4th  The Mutuals, after a fine start, lose their fifth game in a row, to Eckford, 7–0. Only 2 hits are allowed by La “Phonney” Martin.

5th  The annual contest between Yale and Harvard results in a 22–19 victory for Harvard. Yale scores 4 runs in the top of the 9th to lead 19–17, only to have Harvard score 5 in the last half to win the game.

6th The first organized baseball game between a black team and a white team takes place in Chicago, when the black Uniques and the white Alerts square off. The Uniques win, 17–16.

7th  The Olympics of Washington, at home, score 18 runs in the 6th and defeat Ft. Wayne, 32–12. Four players go to bat three times in the big inning—John Glenn, Andy Leonard, Asa Brainard and George Hall. Leonard scores 3 times.

10thAt the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, 200 fans watch the Eckfords wallop the Atlantics, 38–14. Fifty one hits are made in the game, supposedly played with a Peck & Snyder “dead” ball.

12th  The Boston Reds play the Kekiongas at Fort Wayne with the temperature reading 100 in the shade. Losing 8–6 after 5 innings, the Reds win the match 30–9. Al Spalding, Ross Barnes, and Fred Cone get 5 hits each.

13thThe Haymakers of Troy defeat the Mutuals of Brooklyn, 9–7. to give them 3 wins and the season series over the Mutuals. The day is marred by the assault of Clipper Lynn, Troy’s 1B, by Dick Higham of the Mutes. Flynn says that Higham hit him in the face for no reason.

24thThe Athletics win their 3rd game of the season against the Forest City of Cleveland club to win their season series. Levi Meyerle’s home run highlights the 18–3 win.

1870 September

2ndIn Cincinnati, the Atlantics of Brooklyn lose their 2ndgame in a row, 14–3.

5thIn Cleveland, the Atlantics lose their 3rdstraight, as Forest City takes them, 15–13, The Atlantics score 10 runs in the 5thinning after 2 are out to come back from a 14–1 deficit.

7thThe Chicago White Stockings travel to Cincinnati, and bring along their own umpire. With the help of some questionable calls, Chicago wins, 10–6. George Wright is missing from the Reds lineup.

15thThe Philadelphia Athletics travel to Brooklyn’s Union Grounds to play the Mutuals. A crowd of 4,000 is on hand, paying 50 cents apiece, lured by the appeal that it is a match game and not a practice game. The A’s score a run in the 9thto take a 10–9 lead, but the Mutes tie when Alphonese Martin scores and win when John Hatfield scores on Fergy Malone’s passed ball.

22nd  The Mutuals of New York win the Championship for 1870 by defeating the Atlantics 10–4 at the Union Grounds before 10,000. The game has such national interest that telegraph wires are strung and inning-by-inning results are sent nationwide.

24thIn a close game in Brooklyn, the Chicago White Stockings score 5 in the 8thto beat the Atlantics, 9–4.

26thIn Philadelphia, the White Stockings continue their excellent play with a 12–11 victory over the Athletics. Philadelphia does not have the services of their 10-year vet Dick McBride, out with a sore hand. The Whites score 4 in the last of the 9thto win.

27thBack in NY to accept a challenge from the Mutuals to play a series for the 1870 Championship, now held by the Mutes, The White Stockings win, 22–11. The match attracts 10,000.

1870 October

13thThe return game in the Chicago-Cincinnati series is played at Chicago’s Dexter Park. The game is tied after 8 innings, but in the 9ththe White Stockings score 8 and the Reds 5 for a 16–13 final.

15thThe Forest City Club of Rockford hosts Cincinnati. Al Spalding holds the Reds to 6 hits and hits a home run, one of 3 in one inning, as the Red Stockings lose, 12–5.

19thAfter losing the 1stgame of a new series in Brooklyn, 11–7, on the 17th, the Atlantics travel to Philadelphia to play game 2. Dick McBride holds the Atlantics to 6 hits as the A’s win, 15–3. George Zettlein did not make the trip so the Atlantics play the game with 8 players.

22ndWith their home-and home series standing at 1–1, the Cincinnati Red Stockings meet the Athletics in Philadelphia, winning 15–8.

The Forest City Club of Rockford visits Chicago on a raw and chilly day and loses to the White Stockings, 10–6.

24thBefore 2,000 spectators in Philadelphia, the Athletics down the New York Mutuals, 17–12.

25thA crowd of 3,000 is on hand at the Union Grounds as Cincinnati’s Asa Brainard limits the champion Mutuals to 5 hits, as the Red Stockings win easily, 7–1.

26thIn Philadelphia, the Cincinnati Red Stockings take on the Atlantics of Brooklyn, losers of 17 games this year. The Atlantics score 5 in the last of the 9thto beat the mighty Reds, 11–7.

1870 November

1stIn Chicago, the Mutuals of New York play the White Stockings at Dexter Park before 6,000 people. With Chicago leading 7–5 after 8 innings, the Mutuals score 8 runs in the top of the 9th. In the bottom of the 9th, Chicago adopts a waiting game and Wolters, the Mutuals pitcher, loads the bases on walks, and complains that the umpire is not calling strikes. A few hits and passed balls makes the score 13–12 in favor of the Mutes when McAfee, the next batter for the Whites, lets a dozen balls go by without swinging. Wolters throws up his hands and walks off. The ump reverts the score to the 8thinning and the Whites win, 7–5. Chicago has now defeated the Mutes twice since they took the Championship away from the Atlantics. The controversial ending of the game makes the Mutual club unwilling to give up the Championship. The New York Clippersays, In 1867 the Union club happened to defeat the Atlantics two games out of three of the regular series them played between them—only one series being played between clubs at that time. By this victory a precedent was established giving the championship title only to the club that defeated the existing champions two games while they were the champions. Of course this is an. absurd rule but it has prevailed ever since.”

2ndThe Mutuals, on the road all night from Chicago, play badly in Cincinnati and lose to the Red Stockings, 23–7.

10th  At the New York State Base Ball Convention in Albany, a motion prevails that no club in New York composed of colored men should be admitted to the National Association. a critical Henry Chadwick, writing in the New York Clipper on the 19th, reports the following:

“When the new clubs were proposed for election, Mr. Barnum, of the Gotham club, in order to save time, moved to suspend the rules so as to elect by one ballot. Mr. W. R. Macdiarmid of the Star club of Brooklyn, then moved to amend the motion, by providing that in case any of the clubs to be elected should be composed of colored men, their claim to membership should be void. This was unanimously adopted; and thus, for the first time in the history of the National Association, was a political question introduced as a bone of contention in the council of the fraternity. The mischievous influence of this resolution will undoubtedly be felt in the forthcoming convention, and to the Star club of Brooklyn and its partisan delegate will the National Association be indebted for introducing such an element of discord into the proceedings of the National Convention. After the introduction of this fire brand, an election for officers was proceeded with. In view of the action taken by the New York State Convention, we would suggest that the colored clubs of New York and Philadelphia at once take measures to organize a National Association of their own.”

18thThe Union Baseball Ground in Brooklyn will be abandoned next year, and a street will be coming through the enclosure. This will leave only two enclosed parks in the vicinity, Capitoline Grounds in Brooklyn and the Union Baseball park at Tremont.

Chadwick followed up the following week by writing, on the 26th, that Macdiarmid’s resolution barring black was not even supported by his own club:

At a meeting of the Star Club, held at their rooms in Brooklyn, the following resolution was adopted:

“That the motion of one of our delegates in the late New York State Convention of Base Ball Players in regard to the admission of colored clubs to the State Association, involving, as it does, a question of a political nature, the introduction of which, in this club, cannot fail to prove prejudicial to that harmony which is so essential to our success as an organization, does not meet with our sanction or approval.”

21st  The Executive Committee of the Red Stockings Baseball Club issues a circular to the members announcing their determination not to employ a professional nine for 1871. Club president A.P.C. Bonte says that “. . . .we have arrived at the conclusion that to employ a nine for the coming season, at the enormous salaries demanded by professional players [the total payroll for 1869 was $9,300] would plunge our club deeply in debt. Bonte concludes by stating that “[we] have resolved to hire no players for the coming season.”

30th  The 14th annual convention of the National Association of Base Ball Clubs is held in New York, the attendance of delegates being smaller than any previous convention. Wansley, Duffy, and Devyr are reinstated to professional baseball, and William H. Craver is expelled for dishonorable play. Rule changes include allowing the batter to overrun 1B after touching it.

1871 June

5th  The eagerly awaited series opens between the White Stockings and the Mutuals before 10,000 at the Union Grounds in Brooklyn. Five of the old Eckfords play for Chicago while 5 of last year’s Atlantics play for the Mutuals. Fielding decides the game, as Chicago makes 19 errors to 7 for the Mutuals. New York wins 8–5.

17thFormer Civil War General Abner Doubleday, now a Colonel in command of the 24th U.S. Infantry’s “Colored Regiment”, Fort McKavett, TX addresses a request to General E.D. Townsend, Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.: “I have the honor to apply for permission to purchase for the Regimental Library a few portraits of distinguished generals, Battle pictures, and some of Rogers groups of Statuary particularly those relative to the actions of the Colored population of the south. This being a colored regiment ornaments of this kind seem very appropriate. I would also like to purchase baseball implements for the amusement of the men and a Magic Lantern for the same purpose. The fund is ample and I think these expenditures would add to the happiness of the men.”

19th  After 6 innings of play at Troy, NY, the ball becomes ripped. The umpire decides that it is unfit and calls for another. The Kekiongas, winning at the time 6–3, refuse to allow another ball to be used and refuse to continue to the game. The umpire awards the game to the Haymakers, 9–0.

21st  The Kekiongas visit Boston and are shut out by Al Spalding and the Reds 23–0. Ft. Wayne makes only one hit.

22nd  Forest City of Cleveland travels to Philadelphia, and while playing an exhibition game against the Experts of Philadelphia, their substitute C Elmer White, chasing a poorly thrown ball, runs into the fence and breaks his arm.

25th  From the New York Sunday Mercury: Answers to Correspondents—“Of course a player can wear gloves if he likes. A half glove covering the palm of the hand and first joints of the fingers is excellent in saving the hand of the catcher and first baseman.”

28th  The Philadelphia Athletics outlast the Troy Haymakers 49–33 with each team scoring in all 9 innings. The score is tied after 4 innings at 16 each, but Philadelphia scores 9 in the 5th to take the lead. For the Athletics, 4 players score 6 runs and P Dick McBride and John Radcliffe each score 7. The A’s get 36 hits to Troy’s 31.

1871 August

1stAs of today, the Athletics have the best record, 13–5. The total number of matches played by the 9 teams is 77.

3rdIn Troy, George Wright makes his first appearance in a championship game since he was injured here in May. His return doesn’t help Boston as they lose to the Haymakers, 13–12.

7thFive thousand people assemble on the Athletics grounds to see the Bostons trounce the home town A’s, 23–7.

9th  The Eckfords of Brooklyn journey to Troy and defeat the Haymakers 10–7. Ned Connors, the Troy 1B, makes 20 putouts in the 9-inning game.

17thAt the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, the Eckfords score 8 runs in the 9th with 2 out to edge the Troy Haymakers, 15–13. John McMullin, the Troy pitcher, helps with 10 wild pitches in the frame.

21stIn Chicago, the amateur champions, the Star Club of Brooklyn, plays the amateur champions of the Northwest, the Aetnas of Chicago. The game is decided in the 9th, 4–3, when Star pitcher Candy Cummings drives in the winning run.

28th  At the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, the Chicago White Stockings clinch the season’s series with a 6–4 victory over the Mutuals behind the speedy pitching of George Zettlein. This game gives the lie to the current rumors about the leading teams throwing games for gate-money purposes as the Whites could have insured a 5th and deciding game of the series played on their own grounds by losing today’s game.

30th  The White Stockings journey to Philadelphia where they take the 2nd game out of the 3 played in their championship series. The final score, 6–3, marks the lowest score by the Athletics since they started playing professionally. Zettlein holds the Athletics to 4 hits.

31stThe Forest City of Rockford club defeats the Mutuals, 14–4, in an exhibition game at the Union Grounds before just 300 spectators. Most of the public refuses to pay fifty cents unless the game is a meaningful “match” game.

1871 September

2ndAt Boston, the Reds enter the 7th leading Cleveland, 8–2. Two innings later the game is called with the Reds winning, 31–10. Boston scores 12 in the 7th and 11 in the 8th.

5th  With the NA race for the whip-pennant getting closer, Boston defeats the league-leading White Stockings for their first win in the 3 matches played. With the Whites leading 3–0 after 4 innings, Boston scores 6 in the 5th inning, highlighted by a HR over the LF fence by Charley Gould, off George Zettlein, with Dave Birdsall, McVey, and Spalding on the bases. It is the only grand slam hit this year; Zettlein, the pitcher who serves up the slam, also served up the league’s first homer, to Cleveland’s Ezra Sutton on May 8 (as noted by David Vincent). The final score today is 6–3.

9thThe Athletics visit Boston without their star pitcher Dick McBride, who misses the game because of illness. George Bechtel pitches and loses to Al Spalding at the Bostons, 17–14. Harry Wright, a .267 hitter, has 4 walks and 3 runs scored.

11thBetween 500 and 800 spectators, the smallest crowd of the year on the Athletics grounds, see an exhibition game between Cleveland and Philadelphia. Listless play shows why exhibition games are losing favor as the visitors win, 14–1, behind the 6-hit pitching of Al Pratt.

29th  Boston loses to Chicago, 10–8, and loses the season series 4 games to one.

1871 October

7th  The Chicago Fire breaks out at 10 o’clock in the evening. As the Rockford club travels toward Chicago the next day, they see the glow of the fire, turn around and return home. Chicago loses its ballpark and all equipment in the fire. The Whites are leading in the pennant race and must defeat the Haymakers in their remaining 3 games to clinch.

9th  The Athletics win the third and deciding game of their series with visiting Troy by scoring 3 runs in the 9th inning to win, 15–13.

18th  The Athletics defeat the Mutuals 21–7 before a large crowd in Philadelphia. This game puts the Athletics (20-7) in the position of having only to defeat the homeless White Stockings on the 25th to clinch the whip-pennant, provided the Haymakers can win their series with Chicago. According to Frank Vaccaro, the Mutuals arrived in Philadelphia with just seven players and a 9-0 forfeit was awarded to the Athletics. The two teams then played an exhibition which has somehow crept into the official records. The Mutuals were a player short two days ago in Boston and a forfeit was awarded to Boston. At that time, there was some grumbling that New York was trying to help Boston overtake Philadelphia, but today’s shorthandedness erased those suspicions. Frank Fleet is given credit for his first ML game, going 2-for-6 for the Mutuals.

21st  In Troy, NY, the Chicago Whites meet the Haymakers for the first time this season. Chicago, playing a match for the first time since the 29th of September, wins the game 11–5. The White Stockings would lose their next game to Troy, 19–12, on the 23rd and the rest of the series would be rained out. Bad weather prevents the completion of the Troy-Chicago series before the November 1st official end of the season.

30th  The final championship match for 1871 takes place on the Union Grounds in Brooklyn between the Athletics and the Chicago White Stockings. The Championship Committee decrees that today’s game will decide the winner of the pennant. Chicago, having played all of its games on the road since the fire, appears in an assorted array of uniforms. Theirs were all lost during the fire. The 4–1 victory by the Athletics gives them the championship for 1871. The final putout in the game is made by Nate Berkenstock, a 40-year-old retired amateur who appears in his only professional game. With a birth year of 1831, he is the oldest player to appear in a NA game.

1872 February

12th  William Arthur “Candy” Cummings, who has been accused of signing contracts with 3 different clubs for the 1872 season, is released from his obligation to the Haymaker Club of Troy and will be allowed to play with the Mutual Club of NY. Candy maintains that Troy had not lived up to the pact he signed last September, that he never signed with the Athletics, and that he was justified in signing with the Mutes.

1872 March

4th  The National Association of Professional Baseball Players holds its annual convention in Cleveland. Eight clubs send delegates. Bob Ferguson, Atlantics IF, is elected president. Each team is required to play a series of 5 games with each club. Whoever wins the most games will be declared champion. The rules will now permit the use of the wrist in pitching.

1872 April

13th  A gathering of Cincinnatians takes place on the old Union Grounds to witness the auction of the trophies of the famous Cincinnati Red Stockings Baseball Club. Balls from the Reds’ victories of 1869 and 1870 sell for an average of $2–$4 each.

18th  The first match of the season is played at Washington, and the Lord Baltimores hand the Olympics their first “Chicago,” or shutout game, ever, winning 16–0. Other teams in the professional association are the Atlantics, Athletics, Boston, Cleveland, Eckfords, Haymakers, Nationals, Mutuals, and the Mansfields of Middletown, CT.

26th  Troy and Middletown begin their season with a well-pitched game by George Zettlein, now with the Haymakers. For the Mansfields, in their first big- league game, a 10–0 loss, are Tim Murnane and future Hall of Famer Jim O’Rourke. O’Rourke, later a prominent Boston Reds player, will close out a noteworthy career by catching a full game for the New York Giants in 1904.

1872 May

4th  A cold, blustery day in Philadelphia does not deter 5,000 spectators who turn out to see the season’s first game between last year’s champions, the Athletics, and the number one contender, the Boston Reds. Philadelphia scores 6 in the 7th inning to win the game 10–7.

9thThe drawing power of the regular pro clubs and the co-operative clubs is shown as 500 fans witness the Boston Reds defeating the Eckfords of Brooklyn, 20–0. The co-ops, or teams whose players are paid using the team’s share of the gate receipts, are the Atlantics, Olympics, Nationals, Mansfields, and the Eckfords. Indications are that the people are not willing to spend fifty cents to witness games in which the outcome is a foregone conclusion.

20th  A dispute stops play in the Baltimore-Athletics game. With one out and Mike McGeary on 2B and Adrian “Cap” Anson on 1B, Anson is thrown out at 2B on an attempted steal on a pitch that gives the batter a base on balls. The umpire calls Anson out on the grounds that he attempted to steal before Denny Mack received the pitch, a ball, entitling him to his base. During the argument, McGeary steps off 3B and is tagged out, ending the inning. A great uproar starts and the game is stopped. The game will be replayed.

29th  The first game to be played in Chicago since the Great Fire is played on the new grounds of the Chicago Base Ball Association before an enthusiastic crowd of 4,000. Baltimore defeats Cleveland, 5–3.

1872 June

6thAl Spalding holds the Lords to 2 hits as Boston has no trouble with Bobby Mathews, winning 7–0. Charley Gould, first sacker for the Reds, has 17 putouts at 1B.

15th  During the Athletics-Atlantics game, Tom Barlow bunts the ball and reaches first safely. The New York Clipperdescribes the play: “After the first two strikers had been retired, Barlow, amid much laughter and applause, ‘blocked’ a ball in front of the home plate and reached first base before the ball did.” That is one of only 3 hits off Dick McBride, as the Athletics win 11–1.

26thThe Washington Nationals (0-11) (NA) play their last game of the season with a 9-1 loss to Baltimore. A moral victory of sorts: it is their first game holding opponents under 10 runs. The Nationals had opened the season with a 21-1 loss to Baltimore.

30thThe Boston Reds complete June with an 18–1 record. Ross Barnes leads the team in batting with a mark of .380, with George Wright at .368.

1872 July

5th  The Cleveland “Forest Citys” find themselves with just eight men in the middle of their nine day East coast swing. Team captain Scott Hastings has neither starting pitcher Al Pratt (sick) nor backup pitcher Rynie Wolters (absent )at the Capitoline Grounds, just North of Fulton Street in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. Hastings pulls occasional pitcher Charlie Pabor from left field who keeps Brooklyn’s lead to 4-3 after four innings. But the Atlantics eventually win, 10-3, behind Jim Britt (as noted by Herm Krabbenhoft).

6th  With pitcher Al Pratt still ill, Playing with just 8 men, Cleveland plays with eight men and defeats the Eckford club at the Union Grounds in Brooklyn 24–5. The pounding sends pitcher Joe McDermott out of baseball. There are 300 fans on hand. Cleveland C Scott Hastings gets 6 hits and scores 5 runs.

The Boston team under Harry Wright leaves for one of the islands in Boston’s Harbor for 10 days of hunting and fishing for a week’s vacation. Boston’s record is now 22–1.

13thThe Champion Athletics visit Brooklyn. To the delight of the large crowd, the Mutuals avenge last month’s 19–0 pasting with a 8–0 “chicago” of the champs. Candy Cummings allows 5 hits.

23rdThe stockholders of the Troy club dismiss the players on the team without paying them a salary. The players will attempt to operate as a co-op for the rest of the season.

26th  The National Association holds a special meeting, resolving that, because some teams have dropped out of the race for 1872 (Troy, Nationals, and Olympics), 9 games will be played between contending teams this season instead of 5.

29thIn only the 5th championship match played anywhere since the “chicago”, or shutout, of the 13th, the Atlantics give the visiting Reds all they can handle, losing 17–12 in 11 innings.

1872 August

5th  The New York Mutuals use a 7-run 9thto break open their game with the Middletown Mutuals, winning 14-3, as Candy Cummings wins his 19th. Nat Hicks has 4 hits and Dave Eggler has 4 hits and 4 runs. Eggler has now hit in 29 straight games. The Mansfields will play three more games before disbanding.

8th  Twenty-five hundred people watch the Baltimore Canaries rally for 3 runs in the 9th to tie the Mutuals, 8–8, and then win the game in the 12th, 12–8, at the Union Grounds in Brooklyn. Lipman Pike scores the winning run on a hit by Tom Carey off Candy Cummings.

15th  The Maple Leaf Club of Guelph, Canada, the Canadian champions, plays the Mutuals on the Union Grounds. The Canadians started their American tour in Baltimore on the 12th, losing 25–5. Yesterday they lost in Philadelphia to the Athletics 35–8. Today, in a close game, they lose to the Mutuals, 9–4.

19th  After the defeat of the Forest Citys of Cleveland by Boston 18–7 at Cleveland, the club disbands. With the disbandment of the Mansfields earlier this month, there are now only 6 clubs left playing for the pennant.

27thBaltimore journeys to the Unions Grounds in Brooklyn and beat the Eckfords, 15–8, their 7th win in 8 games since Davy Force joined the team after the fall of Troy.

1872 September

1st  Albert Thake, 22-year-old left fielder of the Brooklyn Atlantics, drowns off Fort Hamilton, in New York Harbor, when his boat capsizes while he is fishing with teammates. A benefit game is arranged by Bob Ferguson between the old Brooklyn Atlantics and members of the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings.

14th  An unusual play highlights the Athletics-Boston match in Philadelphia. With the Athletics leading 4–1 in the 7th inning, and runners on 1B and 2B, Fergy Malone pops up to SS George Wright. Wright catches the ball in his hat and then throws the ball to 3B after which it is thrown to 2B. Wright claims a double play has been completed, as a batter cannot be retired with a “hat catch,” and thus runners Cap Anson and Bob Reach are forced out. The umpire finally gives Malone another at-bat, declaring nobody out. Athletics win 6–4.

25thIn Philadelphia, the Athletics, losing 14–5 going into the last of the 9th, fall a run short of tying and lose 14–13. Wes Fisler’s bases-loaded triple is the big blow in the frame.

1872 October

5th  Baltimore scores 39 runs on 42 hits to the Atlantics’ 14 runs on 11 hits. The ball used was so hard and elastic it was dangerous to try and catch it. Scott Hastings, the Baltimore catcher, scores 6 times on 7 base hits.

8th  The “Grand Base Ball Tournament” begins, a series of games played on the Union Grounds in Brooklyn between the 3 major professional clubs: Mutuals, Athletics, and the Reds of Boston. First prize will be $1,800. Today’s game ends in a tie, Mutuals 7, Boston 7. The tournament will end October 17th with Philadelphia and Boston splitting the prize money.

15th  A field day contest of throwing the baseball is held on the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, first prize being $25. Six contestants make 3 throws each from CF toward home plate with the winner getting $25. Johnny Hatfield’s last throw carries 133 yards, 1 foot, and 71⁄2 inches to capture first prize and break his 1868 record of 132 yards. Leonard is next with 119 yards, followed by George Wright at 117, Bill Boyd at 115, Wes Fisler at 112, and Cap Anson at 110.

22nd  The Boston Red Stockings win the championship of the 1872 season, winning their 39th game by defeating the Eckfords 4–3. When the season ends on the 31st (only 17 matches will be played this month) Baltimore and Mutual will finish behind Boston, with 34 wins.

29thAt Brooklyn, the Mutuals lose to Baltimore, 4–1. The New Sun reports that one of the gamblers has two of the Mutes in his pocket. The New York World says the report that one or two of the Mutes had been “squared” appears to be true. A hundred spectators attend the match, the Clipper reporter commenting that with the loss of confidence in the integrity of the players goes all interest in the contests.

1873 March

3rd  Delegates from the existing professional clubs of the country assemble in Baltimore to establish a permanent Professional Association. Teams represented are the Athletics, Atlantics, Baltimores, Boston Reds, Marylands of Baltimore, Resolute of New Jersey, and the Washingtons. A constitution is adopted along with Henry Chadwick’s code of rules. For the first time a uniform ball (Ryan’s dead ball) must be used in all games.

1873 April

14thIn the first game of the season the Marylands of Baltimore host Nick Young’s Washington club. Baltimore is missing some of its players and absorbs a 24–3 loss.

18thThe other clubs representing Washington and Baltimore meet in D.C. Candy Cummings, pitching for the Lord Baltimores, holds the Nationals to one run and 2 hits to win, 7–1.

23rd  At Boston, 2,000 spectators see the Philadelphias (today called the Quakers, later called the Phillies) and Boston. Philadelphia scores 4 in the 9th to win 8–5.

28thIn Elizabeth, NJ, the host Resolutes lose to the Philadelphias, 23–5. Resolute catcher Douglas Allison breaks a finger in the 5th inning and s witches places with SS John Farrow.

1873 May

5th  Two thousand spectators pay 50¢ at the Union Grounds in Brooklyn and watch Baltimore play the Mutuals. Baltimore scores 3 in the first inning without a base hit and wins 6–1.

12thThe Philadelphias come from behind in the 9th inning, scoring 2 runs on hits by Chick Fulmer and Fred Treacey to defeat Bobby Mathews and the visiting Orioles, 5–4.

14th  One of the most exciting, best-played, and closely contested games yet recorded takes place before almost 5,000 between the Philadelphias and the Athletics. The Philadelphias win in the 13th, 5–4, as Chick Fulmer scores the winning run. Only once before, in 1865, has a match required as many as 13 innings to conclude.

17thIn Philadelphia, Athletics P Dick McBride holds the Mutuals to 2 hits, both by Dave Eggler, and wins, 12–0.

19thAt the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, 2,000 fans are on hand as the Atlantics beat the Quakers, 13–11. In the first inning, there are two Quakers on base when Malone hits a pop up to Dickey Pearce. Pearce lets the ball hit the ground, then throws to 3B for a force and the relay to 2B Jack Burdock completes a DP.

31stIn Philadelphia, the Athletics beat the Atlantics, 10–5, while in Boston, the Mutuals score 8 in the 9th inning but still lose 16–9.

1873 June

3rd  The Boston Reds visit the Union Grounds in Brooklyn to play the Mutuals in a game that goes to 12 innings before Boston wins 6–5. George Wright scores for the Reds on a hit by Ross Barnes.

7thAt the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, 2,000 spectators see the Mutuals play the Philadelphias (now referred to as the White Stockings). Forty errors are charged in the game, 26 by the Mutes. Philadelphia scores once in the 8th and 9th to win, 12–10.

11th  The largest crowd of the year, 10,000, jams the grounds at 25th and Jefferson to see the Athletics play the Philadelphias. The Philadelphias score 5 runs in the 7th to win 7–5.

14th  In Boston, 2,000 spectators watch the Reds suffer a shutout for the first time in their history. Dick McBride of the Athletics holds the champions to only 2 hits. An unusual play occurs near the end of the game when Tim Murnane, who later as “Murnane” becomes a famous sports writer, avoids a tag by Andy Leonard by jumping over him to reach 2B.

18thAt the Union Grounds, the Atlantics surprise their 500 fans on hand by defeating the Philadelphias, 13–4. Dickey Pearce leads the attack with 3 hits, including a HR.

27th  Michael J. Kelly, former baseball reporter for the New YorkHeraldand editor of the DeWitt baseball guide in 1868, dies of pneumonia at the age of 33. A benefit game for the family will be played between the Atlantics and the Mutuals on July 19th, raising $1,000.

1873 July

4th  The Resolutes of Elizabeth NJ upset the Red Stocking, 11–2, in an a.m. game. The afternoon game is close for 6 innings but Boston scores 5 runs in the 7th, 2 in the 8th, and 21 in the 9th to roll to a 32–3 win. At the end of today, Baltimore leads with 30 wins, followed by Philadelphia with 27. Boston and the Athletics have 21 each.

3rdIntense heat holds the crowd to 200 at the Union Grounds as Bobby Mathews of the Mutes pitches a 2-hitter to beat the Washington, 2–1. He also hits a triple and scores the winning run.

10th  In Philadelphia, 3,000 people see the Philadelphias, favorites for this year’s pennant, and Boston, last year’s champions, play a wild game with the home team winning 18–17. The teams have decided to cut short the number of games they will play in August due to poor attendance during that month.

17thThe Boston Red Stockings beat the Athletics by a score of 21 to 13. The Bostons make 24 hits, while the A’s have 15—none of the hits for home runs. The time of the game is 2 hours and 20 minutes.

18th  Shortstop George Wright hits 2 HRs in the 3rd off Candy Cummings to stake Boston to an early lead, but Baltimore rallies for 13 runs against Al Spalding in the last 3 innings to overcome a 14–4 deficit. and defeat the Red Stockings 17–14.

21st  One thousand people witness an extraordinary game in Philadelphia between the Athletics and the Lord Baltimores. Lipman Pike’s 3-base hit and Tom York’s groundout tie the game at the end of 9 innings. The Athletics’ 3 runs in the top of the 10th and 2 in the top of the 11th are matched by Baltimore, and it is not until the 13th that Everett Mills scores the winning run for the Baltimores on John Radcliffe’s hit, winning 12–11.

22nd  Tom Barlow’s 6 bunt base hits are not enough to give the Atlantics a victory as the Lord Baltimores win 12–9.

24th  Brooklyn’s Bob Ferguson umpires a close game between the Mutuals and the Baltimores that ends in a 3-run rally by the Mutes in the last of the 9th to win 11–10. A police escort is needed to get the umpire to the clubhouse. Nat Hicks of the Mutuals and Ferguson get into an altercation, the end result of which is the striking of Hicks’s left arm with a bat wielded by the umpire. The men are reconciled after the game, but Hicks’s arm is broken in 2 places, and he will not play for the next 2 months.

30th  The Philadelphia Athletics play their first game in almost 3 weeks after spending a holiday at Cape May, NJ, to rest from the rigors of the season. They are roughly handled at Boston, with the Reds defeating them 24–10.

1873 October

2ndWith 4 wins for each team, the rubber game of the season series is played in Philadelphia with the Reds of Boston. Boston wins, 18–7, to draw even in wins (30) with the Phils.

9thDavy Force and George Hall each have 6 hits and score 5 runs as the Lord Baltimores humble the host Atlantics, 29–4. The Lords have 32 hits.

10th  After scoring 29 runs on 32 hits yesterday, the Lord Baltimores are held to 2 singles by Bob Mathews, as the Mutuals win the game 7–0.

13thIn a slugging contest between Boston and Baltimore, the Reds score 32 runs on 32 hits, while the Lords tally 13 runs on 17 hits. Ross Barnes has 6 hits while the Reds Jim O’Rourke has 5 hits and 6 runs.

16thThe Philadelphias win their 32nd game—2 behind Boston—by beating Baltimore, 13–9. Levi Meyerle starts a triple play for the Lords.

17thBoston overwhelms the Atlantics, 29–4. Harry Wright, batting 9th, collects 2 homers, 2 doubles, and a single.

22nd  The Boston Red Stockings clinch the pennant for 1873 by defeating the Washington Nationals, 11–8, in Washington. George Wright leads the attack with a triple and 2 singles.

29thThe last match of the year is played in Philadelphia, the Athletics beating the Atlantics, 17–5. The standings, showing games actually played by the 9 teams that started the season, have Boston in 1st (43 wins); Philadelphia (36) Baltimore (33); Mutuals (29); Athletics (28).

1873 November

6th  The first game under the proposed new rule of 10 men and 10 innings is played between the Athletics and the Phillies as a benefit for Ned Cuthbert. The majority present thought the 10th man (a right shortstop) was an unnecessary innovation. The Athletics win, 14–13.

1874 January

20thThe Judiciary Committee of the NA meets at Baltimore’s St. Clare Hotel to consider charges that Bob Addy played with Boston last year before the required 60 days had elapsed since his employment by the Rockford Club, and the expulsion of Candy Cummings for leaving the team without permission. The charges against Addy are dismissed and Cummings is censured and reinstated.

29th  A. G. Spalding, 23, arrives in England where he will call on sporting editors and athletes pursuing his plan to bring two baseball clubs to England this summer and exhibit American baseball and to play some cricket matches.

1873 August

7thfor the first time this season, the Philadelphia White Stockings lose a home game as Baltimore beats them, 5–4, behind the hitting of Levi Meyerle and the pitching of Candy Cummings.

16th  The Athletics, later enjoying a vacation of 3 weeks, make their reappearance at home, shutting out the Washington Nationals 14–0, with Dick McBride allowing but 5 hits.

Seven thousand people in Chicago see the Boston Reds defeat the Philadelphia Phillies (also referred to as “White Stockings,” but not in Chicago) 11–8. After the teams leave Chicago it is announced that a number of players have signed contracts to play in Chicago next year.

At Baltimore’s Newington Park, Baltimore OF Lipman Pike races against a horse named “Clarence.” Pike has a short lead after 75 yards when the trotter breaks into a run. Pike holds on to win in 10 seconds flat.

1873 September

6thAl Spalding of the Boston Reds pitches one of his best games holding the Athletics to 3 hits. It is hardly needed as the Reds have a 12-run 7th to coast home, 23–1.

12thIn a game of unprecedented length, 14 innings, the Philadelphia club wins, 3–2, at the Union Grounds. Jim Devlin scores the winning run when RF Ed Booth muffs a fly ball. Devil is caught in a rundown between 3B and home but Jack Burdock throws the ball away.

25thIn Philadelphia, the Mutuals surprise the first place White Stockings (aka Phillies), 8–4. The Phillies have 30 win to Boston’s 28. The games played by the disbanded Resolutes and Marylands have been thrown out.

1874 February

27th  The first match of American baseball ever played in England takes place at the Kennington Oval Cricket Field in London. The match is arranged by Mr. C. Alcock, the cricket editor of the London Sportsman, and the participants include several well-known cricketers. Mr. Spalding and Mr. Briggs, of the Beacon Club of Boston, choose up sides and play a 6-inning game. Spalding loses, 17–5.

1874 March

2nd  The 4th meeting of the Professional Association takes place at the United States Hotel in Boston. Seven clubs send delegates: Athletics, Chicago, Hartford, Philadelphias, Mutuals, and Boston. The Atlantics are not represented but will play this year. Charles H. Porter of the Bostons is elected president. New rules include the adoption of the batter’s box and the prohibition of any player betting on his own team (expulsion) or any other team (forfeiture of pay). The 10-man, 10-inning proposition favored by Henry Chadwick is defeated.

14th  A. G. Spalding comes home from his visit to England after arranging the tour of the Athletic and Boston teams this summer. Plans call for the teams to depart from the U.S. on July 16, play baseball and cricket matches in England during August, and leave Liverpool for home on August 26th. The full number of championship matches during the regular baseball season will be played.

1974 April

16th  The first championship match of the 1874 season is played in Philadelphia, with the Athletics defeating the Philadelphias (now referred to as the Pearls) 14–5.

20thThe Chicago White Stockings, under manager Nick Young, leave for St. Louis for 2 weeks of practice before the season starts.

22nd  The first game of the season in Baltimore finds the home team shut out by the Philadelphias and future Hall of Famer Arthur “Candy” Cummings. Candy allows 5 hits.

1874 May

1stIn Hartford, the home team beats the Mutuals, 10–7. The Nutmegs score 6 runs in the 3rd inning. Lipman Pike has 3 hits.

5th  Tommy Bond pitches for the Atlantics in their 1874 opener. It is his first appearance in the National Association. Bond would later win 40 or more games in 3 consecutive seasons in the NL. Today he limits Baltimore to 4 hits as the Atlantics win the game, played at the Union Grounds, 24–3.

7thThe Athletics Dick McBride pitches a one-hitter to defeat the Pearls, 7–1.

9th  The Mutuals meet the Athletics at the Union Grounds before 1,000 fans. Another 1,000 wait outside the gate for the end of the 3rd inning when they will be admitted for half price. The Mutuals commit 11 errors in the last half of the 6th inning, but still win 8–5.

12thThe Boston Reds trounce the visiting Nutmegs, 25-3. Hartford’s Cherokee Fisher allows 23 hits while his teammates back him with 29 errors. With 2 on in the 4th, Hartford’s Bill Barnie lifts a pop fly in front of home. McVey, catching for Boston bobbles the ball, but George Wright, coming in from SS, catches the ball before it hits the ground.

13th  The first professional championship match in Chicago, by a Chicago team, since the Great Fire of 1871 is played before 4,000 spectators. George Zettlein and the White Stockings defeat the Athletics of Philadelphia, 4–0. The Athletics have 10 hits and 21 base runners and yet fail to score.

30thAt the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, 10,000 fans are on hand for the first match of the year between the Mutuals of NY and the Atlantics. Two runs in the 1st are the only scores as Mathews and the Mutes win, 2–0. Atlantic 1B Herman Dehlman has 21 putouts. The Boston Reds finish the month in first place with an 18–2 mark.

1874 June

12th  Maybe we shoulda loaned them somebody else. At Newington Park, Jack Manning of Baltimore has 6 hits as the Canaries beat the Boston Red Stockings, 17-12. Boston loaned Manning to Baltimore at the start of the season.

15th  Candy Cummings strikes out 6 consecutive Chicago White Stocking batters during an 8–6 victory at Philadelphia.

18th  One of the poorest games of baseball ever played between two professional clubs occurs in New York as the Mutuals defeat the Chicago White Stockings 38–1. Of the 33 hits collected by the Mutes, Tom Carey makes 6 and scores 6 runs. Chicago has two hits and commits 36 errors. Cuthbert and Zettlein are not allowed to play for the Whites because of suspicion attached to their actions during a match in Philadelphia yesterday. They will be reinstated for the game on the 20th and the charges will be dismissed as hearsay.

27th  The visiting Chicago Whites lose to the Boston Reds, 29–6. Pitcher Al Spalding collects 6 hits for the winners.

1874 July

4th  Chicago celebrates its return home after a 4-week eastern trip by defeating the league-leading Boston Red Stockings 17–16 before 10,000 spectators. Pitcher George Zettlein bats in John Peters with the inning run in the 10th. Ross Barnes has 6 hits for the losers. And the end of today the Reds are (26–7); the A’s (20–9), and the Mutes (15–13).

10th“Be generous with kindly words, especially about those who are absent (Goethe) Joe Start, the Mutual star first baseman, misses the train to Hartford, and the Mutes are forced to play with only 8 players. Hartford wins, 13–4. Play-by-play in the Hartford Courant shows that New York’s batting order went from Carey batting eighth to Higham batting first without penalty. The player “Absent”, batting 0 hits with 0 runs, appears in the ninth batting slot. The Courant reports that New York played without a center fielder, but that this handicap produced for Hartford “only five runs”. (as noted by Frank Vaccaro).

Jimmy Wood, famed as a second baseman in the early days and more recently known as the man who put together the Chicago White Stockings of 1870, has his right leg amputated above the knee. The cause was an abscess following an accident several months ago.

16th  The Boston and Athletic teams sail from Philadelphia for England. Round-trip tickets for baseball enthusiasts can be obtained for $100.

30thIn Liverpool, England, the Athletics score 5 runs in the 10th to beat the Bostons, 14–11.

1874 August

3rd  The American visitors play their first game of baseball in London at the Lord’s Cricket Grounds as Boston defeats the Athletics 24–7. In the morning, a cricket match between the Americans and the Maryleborne Club is started. At the completion of the match on the 4th, the Americans are victorious 107–105. The American ballplayers will play in 7 cricket matches during the tour and will win all 7. However, the Americans field 18 players while their opponents use 12.

5thChicago’s first win over the Mutuals is tainted with accusations of crooked play by some of the Mutes players. The host Whites win, 5–4, scoring a run in the 9th. Mike McDonald, a notorious Windy City gambler, is said to have been on a binge last night with a prominent member of the Mutes.

24th  The American tourists arrive in Dublin, Ireland, where they play a baseball game, won by Boston 12–7. They then start a cricket game, finishing tomorrow with the U.S. winning 165–88.

26thIn Philadelphia, Candy Cummings allows 2 hits to beat the Atlantics, 23–1.

In Chicago, the Whites defeat the Baltimores, 6–2. Jim White, playing 3B for the Canaries, has 10 assists.

September 1874

1stIn Hartford, Bobby Mathews allows 3 hits as the visiting Mutuals win, 14–0.

9th  The stockholders of the Philadelphias baseball club vote 26–15 to expel player John J. Radcliffe. Umpire William McLean has testified that Radcliffe approached him before the game at Chicago on July 15th and offered him $175 if he would help Chicago win the game. Four other players were in on the plot: Candy Cummings, Nat Hicks, Bill Craver, and Denny Mack.

12th  Boston’s return home after the tour is spoiled by a victory for the Athletics 6–5. Boston still leads the pennant race with a 31-9 record followed by the Mutuals with 29 victories and 17 losses.

14th  To the surprise of 1,000 Boston spectators, Chicago bats Spalding all over the lot with 10 runs on 22 hits while George Zettlein limits the Reds to no runs on 4 hits. Boston’s George Wright makes 3 errors.

16th  The Globes, Louisville’s first black baseball team, play a charity game for yellow fever sufferers, shaming a pair of local white clubs into following suit to avoid, in the words of the Louisville Courier-Journal, being “outdone by the darkly-complected portion of the human race.”

28thIn Philadelphia, the Athletics win by a 9–0 forfeit over the White Stockings. The score is tied after 8 innings, but the Athletics score 2 in the 9th with darkness approaching. Chicago starts to delay the game, hoping that it will be called, but umpire McLean refuses. After the A’s score 8 runs, Zettlein hands the ball to the ump saying, “we give it up.”

October 1874

1stA bad day in Boston as the Atlantics lose to the Reds, 29–1, getting just 4 hits off Al Spalding. Boston has 26 hits while Brooklyn chips in with 36 errors. Boston and the Mutes are tied with 36 wins.

9th  Five thousand people watch the last match game of the season between the Mutuals and the Boston Reds. Spalding allows only 5 hits, but the Reds lose 4–3. The winning runs score on Joe Start’s double and a throwing error.

20th  Tommy Bond, whom Henry Chadwick says “bids fair to be a second Creighton,” shuts out the Mutual club on 2 hits as the Atlantics win 5–0.

November 1874

1st  The season ends today with the Boston Red Stockings being declared the champions with a record of 43–17. Boston actually had a record of 52-18 but the Committee throws out the Baltimore games because the team did not complete their schedule. The Mutuals finish second.

February 1876

2nd  Chicago President William Hulbert organizes a meeting at the Grand Central Hotel in New York to establish a new organization, the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs. At the meeting are representatives of the Philadelphia Athletics, the Boston Red Stockings, the Hartford Dark Blues, and the New York Mutuals. To win the support of 4 eastern clubs, Hulbert proposes that Morgan Bulkeley of the Hartford club be president and Nick Young of Washington be secretary. The National League is officially organized, with 4 Eastern clubs and Chicago, St. Louis, Louisville, and Cincinnati in the West. The group passes several resolutions, the first preventing two clubs from any one city entering for the championship, while a second prevents any two clubs from playing in a city in which neither of them belongs. “This was done for the purpose of heading off two or three clubs and preventing them from going to Philadelphia” to play exhibition games,” states the New York Times.

12th  Al Spalding, pitching star of the National Association, moves from his home in Rockford, IL, with his brother J. Walter Spalding, to Chicago to “open a large emporium where they will sell all kinds of baseball goods.” This will be the start of the Spalding sporting goods enterprise.

March 1876

19th  The Boston Heraldreports the first practice of the Red Caps under the direction of George Wright. Manager Harry Wright is still in Florida, recuperating from a severe cold. The team has been weakened considerably by the loss to the Chicago White Stockings of Al Spalding, Cal McVey, and Ross Barnes.

1876 April

8th  After 4 great seasons with the Philadelphia Athletics, Adrian “Cap” Anson reports to the Chicago club to play 3B.

19th  Making the AA look like a football league, the Syracuse Stars beat Brooklyn, 18-12. Yesterday, Brooklyn won, 22-21.

22nd  Because of rainouts in other cities, the only (and first) National League game played at Athletic Park, as Boston scores a pair in the 9th to defeat Philadelphia 6–5 before 3,000 fans. The time of the game is 2 hr: 45 minutes. Jim O’Rourke, who makes the first hit, is the only participant in this game to play in the 20th century. Joseph Borden, (pitching under the name of Josephs) is the winning hurler. Borden pitched for Philadelphia last year, but was lured to Boston after his rookie season. Borden’s pitching will turn sour and he will end the summer as Boston’s groundskeeper.

25th  Chicago manager Al Spalding pitches the NL’s first shutout, 4–0, at Louisville.

27th  In his 2nd outing, Chicago’s Al Spalding hurls another shutout over the Louisville Grays, winning 10–0.

January 1875

9th  The first game of baseball played on ice this winter in the New York area takes place at Prospect Park in Brooklyn between 2 teams managed by Billy Barnie and Crawford. Barnie’s team wins 20–7 in a 5-inning match. Only 2 outs per team constitute an inning.

March 1875

17th  The National Amateur Baseball Association meets in Boston. Harry Wright represents the Professionals to try and secure the adoption of a single code of playing rules.

1stThe convention of professional clubs meets in the rooms of the Athletic club of Philadelphia. Thirteen clubs will enter the pro arena this year. The Judiciary Committee awards Davy Force’s contract to Chicago, but with the election of a new Committee, Force is awarded to Philadelphia, much to the dismay of Mr. Hulbert and the Chicago club.

1875 April

10thThe Mutuals play a practice game against a picked nine, winning 10–7. Henry Chadwick is the umpire.

11th  The New YorkSunday Mercury describes the activities of the New Haven club during their training for the upcoming season: “First, each man runs a quarter of a mile, then gentle exercise upon the horizontal bar is taken, after which a trial at vaulting on the vaulting horse is indulged; then a series of Indian Club swinging, followed by the whole team pulling about one mile on the rowing apparatus. After all this, the club retires to a bowling alley where they pass and strike balls.”

19thThe season opens in Boston with the Reds beating the visiting Elm City Club of New Haven. Al Spalding pitches a 6-hitter while three members of the Wright family play in the game. Elm City SS Sam, Boston’s SS George and Harry, captain of the Boston team.

22nd  The first championship match between the Athletics and the Philadelphias (called the Pearls or the Fillies) is played in Philadelphia before 2,000 people, including the Boston 9, who stopped on their way to Washington. Highlights are the triple by Cap Anson of the Athletics and the unassisted DP by Levi Meyerle of the Philadelphias. The Athletics win 6–3.

May 1875

3rd  The Hartfords wallop the Philadelphia Centennials 13–4. Captain Hayhurst discovers that some of the Hartford players are using an illegal bat. The rules state that the bat must be round, but the bat in question has been whittled down almost flat on one side and painted black so as to disguise it. The bat is then removed.

4ththe Chicago White Stockings travel to Keokuk, Iowa and play the Westerns in that city’s first major pro game. Chicago wins, 15–1.

5thBetter rethink this. The Athletics trounce the Washington club, 20–8. This is the 5th game in a row that Washington has lost with the winning team scoring 20+ runs.

6th  Before 5,000, the St. Louis Browns defeat the Chicago White Stockings 10–0 at the Grand Avenue Grounds (later known as Sportsman’s Park). St. Louis’s George Bradley allows but 4 hits.

8th  St. Louis holds the White Stockings scoreless for the first 8 innings and hangs on to win, 4–3. The Browns have shut out Chicago for 17 consecutive innings, a feat never before accomplished in baseball.

11th  Two hundred people sit through a windstorm in St. Louis to see a remarkable game as the visiting Chicago White Stockings, behind Al Spalding, defeat the St. Louis Red Stockings 1–0. Each team gets 6 hits in this, the lowest-scoring game in baseball history at the time.

14thA first in pro ball occurs as all the scoring of the game comes in the 1st inning. The Mutuals defeat the Phillies, 2–1.

17thBoston’s Al Spalding holds the visiting Athletics to 5 hits to win, 12–0. Cal McVey belts a home run (“McVey went ’round the square”) over the fence at the Union Grounds to lead the attack.

21stIn the best-played game ever on the Union Grounds, Candy Cummings and Hartford win, 1–0 against the Mutuals Bobby Mathews. It is the 2ndgame with that score in 10 days.

22ndBobby Mathews faces just 28 Atlantic batters, allowing one hit by Bill Boyd as his Mutuals make no errors and win 4–0.

26th  The Centennial club of Philadelphia becomes the first professional club of 1875 to disband. The Centennials have the honor of becoming the first team to sell a ballplayer. The rival Athletics wanted Bill Craver and George Bechtel, so the Athletics paid an official of the Centennials to have the 2 players released and transferred to the Athletic club.

27thIn Philadelphia, 5,000 spectators watch a close match between the Athletics and the visiting Bostons. Later Boston scores 3 times in the top of the 10th to break 3–3 tie, the crowd rushes the field and the umpire, unable to maintain order, declares a tie.

29th  At Hamilton Park in New Haven, CT, Joseph McElroy Mann of Princeton College pitches a no-hitter against Yale and their star pitcher Avery, winning 3–0. This is the first college no-hitter, according to George Moreland’s Balldom, a 1914 publication.

June 1875

3rdThe visiting Mutuals of New York are “chicagoed” by the White Stockings, 8–0, giving the team their revenge after their famous shutout in Chicago by New York in 1870. The White have 15 hits while the Mutes manage 2 off George Zettlein.

5th  In St. Louis, the Boston Reds suffer their first defeat of the season after 26 victories and one draw. The Browns’ George Bradley holds the Reds to 8 hits in winning, 6–5. After Bradley makes the last putout, the crowd rushes on the field and lifts him to their shoulders. Boston will go 34–8 on the road and will win all 37 games at home.

10thThe finest game ever played in Keokuk, Iowa sees the Westerns battle the Boston Reds before losing, 6–4. A crowd of 300 is on hand. When the Reds get their share of the gate receipts—$13—they elect to forfeit tomorrow’s match and head back to Chicago. A few more events like this and the short-lived Keokuk club packs it in on June 16.

11thGeorge Hall of the Athletics hits 2 consecutive homers as Philadelphia trounces visiting Washington, 21–4.

12thIn Chicago, the Boston Reds hose the White Stockings, 24–7 before a crowd of 10,000. Chicago helps with 21 errors. When Captain Jimmy Wood accuses P George Zettlein of “laying down”, George denies it and threatens to quit.

17thIn a Chicago Tribuneinterview, Chicago’s Jimmy Wood denies any friction with Zettlein and says, “I don’t see why the newspapers should be everlastingly pitching into us when we do so much for them. . . . there seems to be a sort of determination to run down the club.”

19th  Henry Chadwick has this to say about today’s game: “the finest display of baseball playing and the most exciting contest yet recorded in the annals of the national game.” The Chicago Whites and the Dark Blues of Hartford battle 10 scoreless innings before Jim Devlin scores on a fly out by Paul Hines in the 11th to win for Chicago, 1–0. Zettlein is the winner over Cummings. The veteran boxer Billy McLean is the umpire.

21stAt Boston, Al Spalding (6-5) tosses a one-hitter and the Red Stockings overwhelm Ft. Wayne, 21-0. Jim Foran, a .348 hitter in his one season, has the lone safety. The Kekiongas back Bobby Mathews with 11 errors. Ross Barnes has 5 hits.

23rdCap Anson gets 5 hits and scores 6 runs as the Athletics trip New Haven, 18–9.

At Boston, George Wright is 5-for-6 to help Boston beat Brooklyn, 15–1.

24thThe Philadelphias defeat the Whites, 5–2, scoring 3 runs in the 12th under suspicious circumstances. The theory is that Mike McGeary of the Phillies has been paid to help Chicago and indeed, he does make 5 errors. A Chicago player gets wind of the deal and wants in, but when the pool-sellers refuse their offer, the player and his teammates lose the game.

26thThe White Stockings lose another to Philadelphia, 4–3. A Chicago Tribunereporter, calling for the team to disband, saying, “. . . there seems no good excuse for keeping up the present nine. . . .already the public is disgusted with them.” The Chicago Timesreporter feels that the Whites sold out and that Dick Higham, the catcher, lost the game for them.

In torrid heat in Philadelphia, the Athletics hand the Boston Reds a 10–1 defeat in front of a crowd of 5,000. George Hall has a HR and a triple.

28th  An organized gang, having bet on the success of the local 9, interrupt the Boston-Athletic game with the score 12–10 in the last of the 10th inning in favor of Boston. The toughs storm the field preventing further play. Harry Wright says he will not play again in Philadelphia.

29thJoseph Blong, the star pitcher for the St. Louis Reds, leaves for Cincinnati having signed with the Star club of Covington (KY) even though he is committed to the Reds.

July 1875

5th  The largest crowd ever seen in the St. Louis ballpark, estimated at 15,000, sees the Browns soundly defeat the Chicago White Stockings 13–2. The Browns pull off a triple play in the 7th when George Zettlein strikes out swinging and C Tom Miller deliberately drops the ball. He then tags home for the force, tags Zettlein, who is standing there, and throws to 3B where Johnny Peters is out trying to advance from 2B. Watching the game are members of the Washington club who, when they return to their hotel, are told by their business manager that there is no money to pay their way back to Washington. With their club disbanding, the players are given fare and expenses by the directors of the St. Louis club.

13thOne of the most thrilling games of the year is played on the Union Grounds between the Browns and the Mutuals. St. Louis ties the game in the 9th at 7–7, and then scores 2 in the 13th to win, 9–7.

15th  After discovering that urban rival Cincinnati has revived its professional baseball team, Louisville businessmen form the city’s first pro team the same day, allowing them to keep pace on the ball field.

20th  The ChicagoTribunestates that the Bostons will disband at the end of the season, with the Wrights going to Cincinnati to form a club there. The Chicago White Stockings 9 for 1876 will include Al Spalding, James “Deacon” White, Ross Barnes, and Cal McVey of Boston. Harry Wright, having lunch at Taunton, where the Bostons are playing, is told by McVey he isn’t going to play in Boston next year. Wright thinks McVey is joking until he finds out after lunch that 4 players are going to Chicago.

21st  The use of a lively ball is reflected in the score as the Mutuals defeat the Philadelphias 16–13 at the Union Grounds in Brooklyn. 1B Joe Start hits 3 HRs and a triple.

At Boston, the Reds beat the St. Louis Browns, 16–6, despite a 1st inning misplay by George Wright. Wright triples and the ball is thrown in to 3B Bill Hague who tucks it under his arm. Wright doesn’t notice it and, thinking P George Bradley has it, steps off the base and is nabbed by the hidden ball trick.

24thIn an 8–3 loss to the Boston Red Stockings, the St. Louis Brown Stockings pull off a slick DP in the 6th inning (as noted by Bob Schaeffer). Boston’s Cal McVey hits a liner to RF but is thrown out, 9–3, with Charley Waite firing to 1B Dehlman. Dehlman’s relay to the catcher Miller nips Boston’s Leonard, trying to score from 3B. The contest takes a lengthy 2 hours: 10 minutes.

28th  Philadelphia’s Joseph E. Borden, also known by the name Josephs, pitches the first no-hitter, beating the (NA) Chicago White Stockings, 4–0. Nick Young is the ump in the game, which takes one hour and 35 minutes to play. Threatening weather keeps the crowd down.

31st  With 3 months to go in the baseball season, the record now shows Boston in first place with a 37-4 record. The Athletics are 2nd and Hartford 3rd.

1875 August

4thThe Red Stockings Al Spalding and Philadelphia’s Josephs lock up for an 11-inning battle won by Boston, 4–3. A triple by Jim O’Rourke and a ground out by McVey result in the winning run.

9th  The underrated Philadelphias and their sensational P Josephs shut out Jim Galvin and the St. Louis Browns 16–0 on 5 hits. It is the first time the Browns have suffered a shutout in their history.

10thHartford’s Tommy Bonds one-hits the Mutuals to win, 7–0. Jim Holdsworth’s leadoff single is the only hit.

12th  With the score 1–0 and 2 out in the last of the 9th inning, Hartford’s Tom York hits a triple over the center fielder’s head. The next batter, Bob Ferguson, after hitting a number of fouls lefthanded, turns around and bats righthanded, getting a double to tie the score. Rain ends the game with the score Hartford 1, Mutuals 1.

17thThe White Stockings open their home stand against the Athletics and take a 4–1 lead into the 8th. Three errors by 2B Dick Higham—tainted in the view of some—lead to 5 unearned runs and an 8–4 A’s win. Only 2,500 are on hand as fan interest is looking towards next year.

20th  Tommy Bond pitches his 2nd one-hit game in 10 days. Bill Boyd of the Atlantics gets the only hit in the 2–0 victory by Hartford.

21st  The St. Louis Browns defeat the Boston Reds, who are minus the services of Al Spalding, suffering from a strained back. With Boston’s Jack Manning pitching, the Browns win 5–3. George Wright pitches the last 3 innings without allowing a run. This is Spalding’s first absence from a professional game in 5 years with the Reds and, before that, 4 years with Rockford.

28thThe Detroit Evening Newsnotes, according to historian Peter Morris, that the free list would be suspended for a much-anticipated game, with the “exception of ladies, who are always free.”

September 1875

3rdThe Athletics and Dick McBride absorb their worst defeat, losing 16–0 to Boston. Jack Manning allows 5 hits for Boston, while Spalding plays RF.

11th  The first baseball game played with women professionals takes place in Springfield, IL. The diamond is half-sized and a 9-foot high canvas surrounds the entire field. The uniforms are similar to the male version except the pants are shorter. Final score: “Blondes” 42, “Brunettes” 38.

23rdGeorge Zettlein beats his former team, the White Stockings, in Chicago, allowing one hit in the 5–0 win.

24thGeorge Gage, president of the Chicago White Stockings, dies of a stroke. His death paves the way for William Hulbert to take over the club.

25th  Not normally an infielder, Paul Hines, plays 2B for Chicago, making 10 errors, and helping Philadelphia to a 15–6 victory. An amateur named Brady plays CF, goes 0-for-4, but makes 3 errors in his only ML game. The Philadelphia Mercury (as cited in the Chicago Daily of January 27, 1877) reports that, “The Chicago Tribunesays that we cannot name one man in the League who is “crooked.” We beg to differ with our amiable friend and will name, if he wishes it, two players with the Chicagoes who sold a game with the Philadelphia, in Chicago, on the 25thof September 1875, receiving $100 for so doing.” The paper says that one player is still with Chicago [in 1877].

January 1876

18thSamuel Hipkiss obtains a patent for a baseball with a bell inside of it. The intention of the inventor is to provide a ball that will help the umpire make a correct call on tricky judgment plays, such as whether or not a batter tipped a ball on his swing. It is not a ringing success.